Na Alfredo García e ho'ōla i ka ikehu nuklea i ka honua

Ka uhi: Na Alfredo García e ho'ōla i ka ikehu nuklea i ka honua

Ke hōʻole nei i nā moʻolelo e pili ana i ka ikehu nuklea na Alfredo García @OperadorNuclear

He puke akaka loa a me ka didactic kahi e hōʻike mai ai ʻo Alfredo García iā mākou i ka ʻepekema a me nā kumu ʻenekinia ma hope o ka mana nuklea a me nā mea kanu nuklea.

Ma ka puke holoʻokoʻa e aʻo ai mākou i ka hana ʻana o ka radioactivity, nā ʻano o ka radiation, nā ʻāpana a me ka hana ʻana o kahi mea kanu nuklea a me nā ana palekana a me nā kuʻina e hahai ai.

Eia kekahi, e wehewehe ʻo ia i ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa pono e lilo i mea hoʻokele nuklea a e nānā i nā ulia nuklea nui ʻekolu i hana ʻia, e wāwahi ana i nā kumu, nā hoax i hōʻike ʻia a inā paha e hiki ke hana hou i kēia lā.

He pili ka puke na ka mea kākau no ka ikehu nuklea e like me ka ikehu maʻemaʻe e hoʻohana ai ma ke ʻano he kumu a me ke kūlike me nā kumu ʻē aʻe o ka hanauna hou.

ʻO ka ʻāpana o ka radioactivity ka becquerel no ka hanohano o ka physicist Farani Henri Becquerel, ka mea ʻike i ka radioactivity. Hoʻokahi becquerel (1 Bq) ua like ia me 1 hoʻoheheʻe atomika i kekona.

ʻO ka pōʻino i ke kino o ke kanaka ʻo ia ka nui o ka radiation ionizing. ʻokoʻa ka pōʻino ma muli o ke ʻano o ka radiation. Ua ana ʻia ka nui o ka radiation ma sievert (Sv) he ʻāpana nui loa, ʻo ia ke kumu i hoʻohana nui ʻia ai nā millisieverts a me nā microsieverts.

nā ʻano pāhawewe

  • Beta radiation: Electrons a i ʻole positrons ma ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana o nā protons a me nā neutrons
  • Neutron radiation: Nā neutron manuahi
  • Nā kukuna Gamma a me nā kukui X: ʻO nā hawewe electromagnetic (photons) ikaika loa
  • ʻO ka pāhawewe Alpha: Nuclei o nā ʻātoma helium me 2 neutrons a me 2 protons.

Kauoha o ka Nui

ʻO kēia kekahi mau waiwai i kūkākūkā ʻia ma ka puke a e kōkua iā mākou e loaʻa kahi kauoha o ka nui ke kamaʻilio mākou e pili ana i ka radiation a me ka radioactivity.

  • Hoʻopuka ka X-ray o ka lima i ka nui radioactive o 0,0001 mSv
  • Ua loaʻa i ka radiation ka heluna kanaka ma ke kumu maoli, 2,4 mSv makahiki. ʻO ia ke kumu radioactive kūlohelohe.
  • ʻIke ʻia ka nui o ka maʻi kanesa mai 100 mSv/makahiki
  • ʻO nā kukuna Cosmic mai ka lewa mai kahi nui nui o ka radiation ionizing. ʻO ka maʻamau maʻamau he 0,39 mSv makahiki
  • ʻO ke kinoea radon (Rn-222) koʻikoʻi koʻikoʻi ma Sepania, ʻo ka nui ma waena o 1,15 a me 40 mSv/makahiki i manaʻo ʻia ma muli o ka wahi a mākou e noho ai.
  • Hāʻawi ka hānai ʻana i ka awelika o 0,29 mSv/makahiki, a no laila hāʻawi ka potassium-40 i ka 0,17. He kiʻekiʻe ka nui o ka radioactivity a me ka maiʻa i ka kai kai.
  • ʻO ka maʻamau maʻamau no kēlā me kēia kanaka ma ka UNSCEAR health level I ʻāina he 1,28 mSv/makahiki me nā X-ray a me ka lāʻau nuklea.

Nā hui a me nā acronyms

Nā hui a me nā acronyms e pili ana i ka ikehu nuklea a me ka ʻenehana nuklea

  • UNSCEAR: Kōmike ʻepekema ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa e pili ana i nā hopena o ka hoʻokalakupua ʻana o Atomic:
  • CSN (Nuclear Safety Council): ʻO ia ke kino hoʻoponopono no nā mea kanu nukili a me ka radioactive a me nā mea hana ma Sepania.
  • IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency)
  • NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) he ʻAmelika
  • OSART (Ka Hui Hoʻoponopono Palekana Hana)
  • WNA (Ka Hui Nukelea Honua)
  • WANO (Ahui o ka honua o na mea hana nukelea)
  • INPO (Institute of Nuclear Power Operator)
  • RNA (Nuclear Risk Insurer) Hoʻopiʻi ʻia nā mea kanu nuklea.
  • NA MAKAHIKI (International Scale of Nuclear Events): hele ia mai ka 0 a hiki i ka 7. ʻO nā pae mua ʻekolu mai ka 1 a hiki i ka 3 he mau hanana a mai ka 4 a hiki i ka 7 ulia.
  • ENRESA
  • Hoʻolālā nui o ka ʻōpala radioactive
  • GIF (International Forum of the IV Generation)

nā mea kanu nuklea

ʻO ke ʻano ākea nui o ka reactor nuklea ʻo ka PWR, ka wai kaomi. He 3 kaapuni wai hydraulic. ʻO ka mea mua e hoʻolili i ka wela i hana ʻia e ka reactor, ʻo ka lua e hoʻolili i ka mea mua a loaʻa ka mahu e hoʻoneʻe i ka turbine a me ka tertiary e hoʻolili i ka lua me ka wai a i ʻole ka wai kai.

ʻO ke kaapuni mua he radioactive, akā ua hoʻopaʻa ʻia, ʻaʻole ia e hui pū me ka lua. ʻO ka wahie reactor kekahi mau koʻokoʻo, 264 i loko o ka PWR Westinghouse reactors i ana 20 × 20 kenimika a me 4 m kiʻekiʻe. Hana lākou me 152 ea o ke kaomi a me ka wai wai ma 300ºC

Hoʻololi ka tertiary i ka wai me ke kaiapuni. ʻAʻohe radioactivity, akā hoʻonui ia i ka mahana o ka wai. Aia ka palena awelika o kēlā me kēia lā he 3ºC ma waena o ka puka wai i ka mea kanu a me ka puka o kēlā wai hoʻokahi.

ʻO nā hale kiaʻi nui āu e ʻike ai he mau hale hoʻomaha

bwr

ʻO ka lua o ka nui o nā ʻano reactor ʻo ia ka BWR boiling wai reactors. Hana ʻia ka mahu i loko o ka reactor hoʻokahi a lawe pololei ʻia i ka turbine, nā mea āpau i loko o ke kaapuni mua. He hoʻomaikaʻi ia ma ka pae hana, akā aia nā mīkini āpau i loko o ka ʻāpana radioactive.

ʻAʻole hiki ke pahū ka mana nuklea e like me ka pōkā atomika. No ka mea ua hoʻonui ʻia ka wahie o kahi mea kanu mana me ka 2 - 5% uranium-235 aʻo ka hopena o ke kaulahao e hana ʻia e like me ka pōkā atomika, pono e hoʻonui ʻia ma mua o 90% o ka nui koʻikoʻi.

I loko o ka PWR, ua ho'omalu 'ia ke kaulahao me nā ko'oko'o a me ka waika boric i ho'ohehe'e 'ia i loko o ka wai. Loaʻa i nā koʻokoʻo ke kiʻekiʻe o ka neutron absorption hiki i nā BWRs nā koʻokoʻo mana wale nō

hale hooluolu

ʻO lākou nā mea hōʻailona i ʻike ʻia o nā mea kanu nuklea a me nā mea kanu wela. ʻO ia nā kapuahi nui, ka mea e hoʻomaʻalili ai i ka mahu, he mea hoʻololi wela a hoʻihoʻi ʻia ka wai i kona kaiapuni (ka muliwai, ke kai) i loko o ka pae wela o 3ºC.

Aia ko lākou nui ma kahi o 150 m ke kiʻekiʻe

ʻO ka wai wahie a me Cherenkov radiation

He hanana kino ia i hana ʻia i nā mea wahie e hoʻopuka ana i ke kukui polū. ʻO kēia ma muli o nā ʻāpana i hoʻopiʻi ʻia e ka wahie i hoʻohana ʻia, e holo wikiwiki ana ma mua o ka māmā o ka wai a hiki iā mākou ke ʻike i kahi kukui polū nani.

Maanei hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻike i kahi laʻana.

nā noi ʻenehana nuklea

ʻOiai ʻaʻole i hoʻohana ʻia i ka lewa, nui nā papahana no nā makahiki he nui e hoʻohana i nā mea hana e like me ka RTG radioisotope thermoelectric generator, e hoʻohana ana i nā thermocouples e hoʻohuli i ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana i ka ikehu uila e hoʻohana ana i ka hopena thermoelectric.

Ma ke kai hoʻohana ʻia i ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā submarines nuklea.

Hoʻohana ʻia ia i ka pili ʻana, me ka carbano-14

Ma kahi pae ʻoihana, aia ka scintigraphy ʻoihana, ʻo ia kahi ʻenehana hoʻomalu no ka hoʻāʻo ʻole luku ʻole, neutron radiography no ka loiloi ʻana i nā ʻāpana, nā māwae, ka corrosion, etc. Hoʻohana ʻia ʻo Cobalt-60 e hoʻomaʻemaʻe i nā huahana lāʻau lapaʻau a me nā lāʻau lapaʻau, hoʻopili a me nā huahana agri-meaʻai.

Inā makemake ʻoe i ka ʻenehana Nuclear, e nānā pū i ka cogeneration

Ma ka pae hoʻohana, aia ia i loko o nā mea ʻike uahi, kekahi mau wati glow-in-the-dark, fluorescent pena, etc. Hoʻohana maʻamau ka mea ʻālohilohi i ka tritium he radioactive.

ʻO ka lāʻau lapaʻau Nucellar nā radiographs a i ʻole nā ​​kiʻi radiological, radiopharmaceuticals, positron emission tomography (PET), radioimmunoassay, a me ka radiation therapy.

Nā mea make

ʻO nā mea kaulana loa ʻekolu

Mokupuni ʻEkolu Mile (TMI)

He hale mana nukelea ma Pennsylvania USA. Ua pau ke kaapuni lua a ua pau na pauma wai e lawe mai i ka wai i na mea hana mahu. No laila ua piʻi nui ke kaomi mua. Ua hana ʻia ka nui o ka hydrogen, akā ʻaʻole ia i pahū. 4% o ke kumu 62 tons o ka mea i hooheheeia, aka ua paa na mea a pau i ka moku. no laila, ʻaʻohe mea hoʻohaumia radioactive.

ʻO Chernobyl

ʻO ka mea kaulana loa, me kāna moʻolelo ponoʻī ma Netflix. Aia i loko o ka puke kahi mokuna holoʻokoʻa e nānā ana i ka moʻo a me nā mea a pau i ʻōlelo ʻia he pololei a hewa paha e pili ana i ka ulia pōpilikia. He heluhelu maikaʻi inā ʻoe i ʻike a i ʻole e ʻike paha.

Ua hiki mai ka ulia Chernobyl me kekahi ʻano reactors RBMK Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy channel-type high-power reactor. Loaʻa iā lākou ka ʻokoʻa i ka piʻi ʻana o ka mahana, piʻi ka mana o ka reactor, e paʻakikī loa i ka mālama ʻana i ka wā o kahi ulia pōpilikia, ʻaʻole like me nā reactors PWR, e hoʻemi ana i ka mana ma nā mahana kiʻekiʻe.

ʻO kahi hoax maʻamau, ʻaʻole hiki ke noho ʻia ʻo Chernobyl no nā kaukani mau makahiki, akā ʻaʻole kēia ka hihia, ʻoiaʻiʻo, ke alakaʻi ʻia nei nā huakaʻi alakaʻi o ia wahi me nā hana palekana e pili ana.

Fukushima

Ma Malaki 11, 2011, ma hope o kahi ōlaʻi 9 nui mai ke kahakai o Iapana, ua hoʻopōʻino ke kai eʻe i ka hale mana o Fukushima Daiichi. Ua nalowale kona mau mea hana diesel a aia nā pahū hydrogen i hoʻokuʻu i nā mea radioactive i loko o ke kaiapuni.

ʻAʻohe make i ka radioactivity. Ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka poʻe 100.000 a ma muli o kahi noiʻi IZA, ʻo ke anuanu o ka poʻe i haʻalele ʻia i make ai he 1280 mau make ma mua o ka mea i haʻalele ʻole ʻia.

ʻŌpala

Ke kamaʻilio e pili ana i ka ikehu nuklea aia ʻelua makaʻu nui. Makaʻu kekahi i kahi pōʻino a ʻo kekahi hopohopo i ka mea e hana ai me ka ʻōpala.

Nā ʻano ʻōpala radioactive

RBBA: Haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, mai ka wehe ʻana i nā mea kanu nuklea a pau ka radioactive i 5 mau makahiki.

RBMA: ʻO ka ʻōpala hana haʻahaʻa a me ka liʻiliʻi: ʻo ia nā lole hana, nā mea hana, nā mea lapaʻau, a me nā mea hana mai nā ʻoihana ʻē aʻe. He 30 makahiki kona hapalua ola.

RAA: ʻO nā ʻōpala hana kiʻekiʻe. Hoʻohana ʻia lākou i nā wahie mai nā mea kanu nuklea. Me ka hapalua o ke ola ma mua o 30 mau makahiki, i kekahi manawa he mau kaukani makahiki.

ʻO Gestión de residuos

ʻElua kumu hoʻolālā, ʻo ka pōʻai paʻa kahi i hana hou ʻia ka wahie a me ka pōʻai wehe kahi i manaʻo ʻia ai ka wahie i ʻōpala a mālama ʻia ma nā ʻano like ʻole.

  • ATI: hale kūʻai kūʻokoʻa kūʻokoʻa. Hoʻokumu ʻia lākou ma nā pahu e mālama ai i kahi maloʻo. ʻAʻole lākou he hale kupapaʻu nuklea, hana lākou ma waena o 60 a 100 mau makahiki.
  • hale kūʻai manawaleʻa kikowaena ATC. Hoʻohana ia i ka mālama ʻana i ka wahie nuklea a hiki i ka loaʻa ʻana o kahi hopena paʻa. E hana hou a hoʻouna paha i kahi APG
  • AGP hohonu, hoʻopaʻa ʻāina lōʻihi. E hoʻāʻo e pale i ka waiho ʻana i nā hanauna e hiki mai ana ke kuleana o ka hoʻokele ʻōpala. Ke hoʻopaʻa ʻia kahi APG ʻaʻole pono ia e mālama a nānā ʻia.

hana hou ʻana i ka wahie nuklea

Aia nā ʻenehana e hoʻohana hou a hoʻohana hou i ka wahie, ʻoiai ʻaʻole lākou i maikaʻi loa, i ka 4th generation generators aneane pau ka wahie e hoʻohana ʻia, ua manaʻo ʻia a hiki i ka 97% ma mua o ka 5% o kēia manawa.

ʻOiai ka lōʻihi o ka wahie MOX o ka hui ʻana o ka uranium a me ka plutonium. Hana ʻia ia mai ka plutonium i hana hou ʻia mai ka wahie pau. Hoʻohana hou ia i ka plutonium mai nā pōkā atomika.

REMIX, ua hana ʻia kēia wahie mai ka hui ʻana o ka uranium i hana hou ʻia a me ka plutonium mai ka wahie i hana hou ʻia. Hiki ke hana hou ʻia ma ka 100% uku i nā reactors VVER-1000 o kēia manawa a hiki i 5 mau manawa.

Ka ikehu nukelea ma Sepania

Aia kekahi mokuna kūikawā no ka nuklea ma Sepania a me nā kālai'āina a pau o ka'āina. Akā, ʻaʻole au e ʻohi i kekahi mea. ʻO ka mea makemake e ʻike hou aʻe, pono e heluhelu iā ia a e noiʻi i ka moratorium nuklea.

Ka mana nuklea ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa

Hoʻokumu ʻia ka 10% o ka uila o ka honua e 442 nuclear reactors. I ka makahiki 2018, ua hana ʻia he 2563TWh

ʻO nā ʻāina e pili nui ana i ka ikehu nuklea me ka hana ʻana i nā mea kanu i ka wā e hiki mai ana ʻo Kina, India, Russia, ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, Saudi Arabia, Iapana, ʻApelika Hema, a me Turkey, a me Polani a me United Kingdom.

Ua manaʻo ka WNA i ka papahana Harmony, e hoʻoulu ma kahi o 25% o ka uila o ka honua me ka ikehu nuklea e 2050.

ʻAʻole i pau ke ola o nā mea kanu nuklea 40 makahiki. ʻO kēlā manawa kona ola hoʻolālā, ʻo ia hoʻi, ka mea e mau ai, akā ʻo kona ola pono ka mea hiki ke kū i nā kūlana maikaʻi, a hiki ke hoʻololi ʻia nā mea hana a me nā ʻenehana, e hui pū me ka mālama hoʻoponopono y pale akuHoʻonui lākou i ka lōʻihi.

Hoolako Uranium

He mea maʻamau ka Uranium e like me ka tin a i ʻole ka zinc, ʻike ʻia ʻo ia i hoʻoheheʻe ʻia i loko o nā pōhaku (maʻamau ka granite), ma ka lepo, a me ka wai kai.

ʻO nā ʻāina me nā kumuwaiwai kaulana loa ʻo Australia (39%), Kazakhstan (14%), Kanada (8%), Russia (8%) a laila nā ʻāina e like me Namibia, South Africa, Kina, Niger a i ʻole Brazil.

Pono nā reactors 450 o ka honua me ka mana o 400GwE i 65.000 tons i kēlā me kēia makahiki.

Ma waho aʻe o ka phosphate a me ka waiho ʻana o ka honua, ke aʻo ʻia nei ke koho o ka unuhi ʻana i ka uranium mai ka wai kai. kahi i manaʻo ʻia aia he 4000 miliona mau tona o ka uranium i hoʻoheheʻe ʻia. Ua lawa ka mana i hoʻokahi kaukani mana nuklea 100.000 makahiki

ʻO Thorium

I ka makahiki 1828 ua ʻike ʻo Jöns Jakob Berzelius i kahi mea hou, ʻo Thorium, i kapa ʻia ma muli o Thor, ke akua o ka hekili Norse. I ka makahiki 1898 ua ʻike kūʻokoʻa ʻo Gerhard Schmidt lāua ʻo Marie Curie he radioactive ʻo Thorium.

E pōlo mālie loa ana ka Th-232, ʻo kona hapalua ola he 14.000 biliona makahiki. He liʻiliʻi loa ka radioactive. ʻO Tori oxide (ThO2) a i ʻole torianite kekahi o nā wahi hoʻoheheʻe kiʻekiʻe loa o nā oxides āpau 3350ºC, hoʻohana ʻia ia i nā ʻōpuʻu kukui, nā kukui kinoea, nā electrodes welding, nā seramika, etc.

He nui ka Thorium ma India.

Akā ʻaʻole ia he fissile, ʻaʻole ia e haki i ka wā e hui ai kahi neutron me ia. No laila ʻaʻole hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻohana pololei i kahi reactor nuklea, akā ma ka hoʻomoʻa ʻana i ka neutron e hoʻololi ia i U-233 i hiki ke hoʻololi.

ʻO nā mea maikaʻi o Thorium ʻo ia ka nui, ʻaʻole pono e hoʻonui ʻia a hoʻohua ʻia ka ʻōpala. Akā, he pipiʻi ka hana ʻana i ka wahie

SMR Li'ili'i Modular Reactors

ʻO ka SMR (Small modulate Reactor) nā mea i hoʻohana ʻia i loko o nā submarines.

Hoʻokumu ʻia lākou e NuScale Power ma US. Ana lākou he 23m x 4,5m ka anawaena a hāʻawi i 50Mwe o ka mana.

Ma Argentina, ke kūkulu ʻia nei ka CAREM (Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares).

Ma Rūsia, hoʻohana ʻia ka KLT-40S, ma ʻEulopa ka IRIS a ma Kina kahi reactor moena pellet, hoʻololi ʻia e ka graphite. Ke hana nei ʻo Iapana ma kahi reactor 200Mwe HTRP-PM.

hou reactors

ʻO 6 mau ʻenehana hou, kokoke i nā mea āpau me kahi pōʻai wahie pani, manaʻo e hoʻohana ʻia ka 97% o ka wahie e hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka 5% o kēia manawa.

ʻEhā o nā hoʻolālā e hoʻohana i nā neutron wikiwiki.

No ka refrigeration hoʻohana lākou i ka wai maʻamau, 2 ʻoluʻolu me ka helium, ogre me ka sodium, kekahi me ka fluorine a me kekahi me ke kēpau.

LFR Lead Cooled Fast Reactor

ʻO ka hydrogen kahi mea hoʻohana ikehu i hoʻohana ʻia e mālama i ka ikehu.

MSR molten salt reactor, kahi e hoʻoheheʻe ʻia ai ka uranium e like me ka paʻakai i loko o ka mea hoʻomaha.

ʻO ka mea kūpono loa i kēia manawa ʻo ka SFR sodium-cooled fast reactor. hoʻohana i ka uranium pau ʻole ma ke ʻano he kumu wahie.

ʻO kahi hihia kūikawā o SFR ʻo ka reactor hawewe huakaʻi TWR i hoʻomohala ʻia e TerraPower, i hoʻokumu ʻia e Bill Gates.

Hui Nukelea

uhi puke, mana nukelea

E hoʻohana ia i ka hydrogen, he mea pau ʻole a maʻalahi loa. Aneane ʻaʻohe ʻōpala. e hoʻonui i ka mana no ka nui o nā wahie ma mua o ka fission

ʻO ka papahana hoʻohiki maikaʻi loa ʻo ITER, kahi hoʻokolohua hoʻoneʻe nuklea fusion ma Farani. ʻO kāna pahuhopu mua e kiʻi i ka plasma ma 2025, ka tokamak mai ITER, he 19 mika ka laula a me 11 mika ke kiʻekiʻe a me ke kaumaha ma kahi o 5000 tons. ʻO kāna pahuhopu ka hoʻoulu ʻana i 500MW mai kahi mana hoʻomehana o 50MW. Me ka lohi o ka hana ʻana a me ke kūkulu ʻana i kēia manawa ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia e hele mai ma ka pūnaewele ma 2040

ʻO ke kumu o ka hui ʻana, ʻo ia ka hāʻawi ʻana i ka ikehu nui a hiki i ka 8 hydrogen atoms fuse, hana helium a hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka nui o ka ikehu ma ke ʻano o ka māmā a me ka wela a me nā ʻāpana.

Hoʻopilikia ʻia ka hui ʻana e nā mana electrostatic repulsive o ka nuclei. He paʻakikī loa ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā ʻātoma.

ʻO ka ʻenehana fusion nuklea loa e hoʻokō, me ka ʻenehana o kēia manawa, ʻo ia ka hui ʻana ma waena o deuterium a me tritium, ʻelua isotopes o ka hydrogen.

Hiki iā mākou ke hōʻea i ka mahana e pono ai no ka fusion, ʻo ka ʻāpana paʻakikī ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana o nā ʻāpana. 2 mau ʻenehana ke hana ʻia nei.

ʻO ka MFC magnetic confinement, hoʻopaʻa ʻia ka plasma i loko o ke kahua magnetic ma ke kaomi haʻahaʻa loa a hoʻomehana ʻia i ka wela hoʻoheheʻe. ʻO ke ala maikaʻi loa me nā reactors toroidal, reactor tokamak, akā, ua noiʻi ʻia nā mea paʻakikī ʻē aʻe hōkūhele.

hoʻopaʻa inertial. Hoʻopili nā kukuna laser i ka wahie a hoʻomehana i ka papa waho o ka mea. e pahū ana ma ke kaomi ʻana i loko. ʻO ka ikehu i hoʻokuʻu ʻia e hoʻomaʻamaʻa i ka hui ʻana o ka wahie. ʻO ka manawa i koi ʻia no kēia mau hopena e kaupalena ʻia e ka inertia o ka wahie.


ʻO kēia mau memo a pau i hopu i koʻu manaʻo a makemake wau e hoʻomanaʻo. Akā i loko o ka puke he nui nā ʻike hou aʻe a ma luna o nā mea a pau i wehewehe i ka hohonu loa. No laila, inā makemake ʻoe, mai kānalua e heluhelu.

Nā loulou i ka noiʻi a aʻo hou e pili ana ʻenehana a me ka ʻenehana Nukelea

Inā he kanaka hoʻomaha ʻoe e like me mākou a makemake ʻoe e hui pū i ka mālama ʻana a me ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i ka papahana, hiki iā ʻoe ke hāʻawi i kahi hāʻawi. E hele nā ​​kālā a pau e kūʻai i nā puke a me nā mea hana e hoʻokolohua a hana i nā haʻawina

Haʻalele i ka manaʻo hoʻopuka