aqueducts Roma

ʻO nā aqueducts Roma a me kā lākou hana ʻana

Ma kēia ʻatikala e ʻike ʻoe i ka nui o ka ʻike e pili ana i nā aqueducts Roma, pehea i kūkulu ʻia ai lākou, pehea i koho ʻia ai ke kumu kumu, pehea i koho ʻia ai ke ala, etc. ʻO kēia nā memo i lawe ʻia mai nā mokuna ʻelua nā aqueducts o ka moʻo ʻenehana Roman a me nā kumu ʻē aʻe aʻu e waiho nei ma ka hope.

Ke kamaʻilio ka poʻe he nui e pili ana i nā aqueducts, manaʻo lākou i nā pio, e like me ko ka aqueduct Segovia, akā he hapa wale nō ia. ʻO ka aqueduct ke kahawai a pau mai ka pūnāwai a i ʻole ke kumu kumu a hiki i ke kūlanakauhale e hele ai, a ma kēia huakaʻi e alakaʻi ʻia ka wai ma nā ala like ʻole, mai nā paipu kepau i kanu ʻia, nā paipu pōhaku alelo-a-groove, nā awāwa, nā tunnel pōhaku, mai nā siphon i hoʻohuli ʻia, nā decanters, nā mea hoʻokaʻawale i nā arches, ʻo nā mea āpau he ʻāpana o ka hana nui o ka ʻenekinia hydraulic.

Nā mea nui

Ke ʻimi mau nei ka poʻe Roma i nā kumu o ka maikaʻi a me ke kahe. ʻAʻole lākou i hoʻolako i ka wai mai nā muliwai a me nā ʻauwai i nā kūlanakauhale, akā mai nā pūnāwai maikaʻi loa, e lawe mai ana i ka wai mai nā wahi a pau e pono ai.

ʻO ka wai ke kumu nui o nā kūlanakauhale Roma. He mea nui ka loaʻa ʻana o ka lako mau a maikaʻi. Ma ka ʻatikala holoʻokoʻa ʻike ʻoe i nā hiʻohiʻona o nā hana nui a lākou i hana ai e lawe i ka wai kahe i nā kūlanakauhale like ʻole. A he mea ia e hana hou ʻia ana ma ke aupuni holoʻokoʻa.

ʻAʻole lākou i hoʻohana i nā hana hoʻokiʻekiʻe e like me Archimedean screws ʻoiai ua kamaʻāina lākou iā lākou. Ua hoohana lakou i ka umekaumaha, ua emi mau ke kiekie o ke kulanakauhale mamua o ko ka punawai. Pela no na kulanakauhale a me na auwai. E hoʻoholo ana i ke kiʻekiʻe o ka pūnāwai a me ke kiʻekiʻe i noho ai ke kūlanakauhale.

ʻAʻole hiki iā lākou ke hana i nā kahawai me ka liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi no ka mea e hoʻoheheʻe ʻia ke hele mālie ka wai a paʻa iā lākou. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, inā ʻoi aku ka pali, ua nui loa ke au i hoʻopau i ke kahawai. Hana lākou me nā pali e oscillate ma waena o 10 knm a 50 knm no ka km.

No ka ʻike ʻana i ke ala e holo ai ka aqueduct, ua hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ka topography me kahi mokulele ākea e hoʻomaka ana mai ka wahi o nā pūnāwai a hiki i kahi o ke kūlanakauhale a ma kēia ala nā ʻano like ʻole e hiki ai. lawe hiki ke ike.

Ua hoʻohana ko Roma i nā mea hana like ʻole. ʻO ka dioptra e ana i nā kiko geodesic i triangulate (Geodesy)

Ua pani ʻia nā kahawai a pau a ua kanu ʻia ma ka hapa nui o ka ʻāina. Loaʻa iā lākou kahi papa wai wai i hana ʻia mai ka lime a me ka lepo lepo (Opus ninum)

Ua hana lākou i nā tunnel a me nā pio e pōkole ai ke ala. Ua hoʻohana lākou i ka pae wai e hoʻomalu i nā pali.

Calcareous concretion, lime e paa ana i na paia.

castelum divisorium. Kahi i hele mai ai ka wai a mahele. Ua hele ke koena o ka wai i ka hili no ka ma'ema'e mau.

Castellum aquae. He waihona ia ma ka ʻaoʻao o luna o ke kūlanakauhale kahi i hele mai ai ka wai mai ka aqueduct.

Nā Laʻana o nā Aqueducts

nā laʻana o nā aqueduct Roma

Ehia ma Sepania?

ʻO Nemausus 860k mau kānaka) he nimes

Aqueduct ʻo Tiermes

Aia ke kūlanakauhale haʻahaʻa ma Soria a ʻoiai ke hana nei lākou i 6km aqueduct ma ka ʻāina me ka nui o ka pōhaku.

E like me kā mākou i ʻōlelo ai, ua piha ke aupuni holoʻokoʻa i nā kūlanakauhale liʻiliʻi me nā aqueducts maikaʻi e pono ai ka hoʻoikaika nui e kūkulu.

Cella Aqueduct

Aqueduct mai Albarracín a Cella, 25 km ka lōʻihi. Hoʻololi ʻia kahi hoʻoili wai. E lawe i ka wai mai ke kīʻaha Turia ma kahi o ka Ebro.

He 5 km ka lōʻihi me kona manholes, he hana nui a me ka hoʻoikaika waiwai no kekahi kūlanakauhale haʻahaʻa. He 70 mau mika ke kiʻekiʻe, me ke anawaena haʻahaʻa o 1 mika akā i kona piʻi ʻana, ua ʻeli lākou ma ke ʻano o ka ʻoki ʻoki ʻia, a pau me nā pūnāwai nui.

E ʻimi ana lākou i nā hono i mea e maʻalahi ai ka wili.

ʻO Chelva Aqueduct

ʻAʻole lākou ʻike i kahi i hoʻolako ʻia ai, manaʻo lākou ʻo Lliria paha ia. ʻO Sagunto paha, he 40 km ka mamao. E huli i nā pūnāwai a me nā kumu ma kahi o Sagunto.

Aqueduct Bilbilis

He kiʻekiʻe loa. Ua kaulana no ka nui o na luawai. Hoʻoholo ʻia e mālama lākou i ka wai ua ma hope o nā hana i ʻike ʻia ma nā kūlanakauhale ʻē aʻe. Haʻahaʻa ka ua a me nā lua wai ma nā wahi kiʻekiʻe. ʻAʻole lākou e hoʻopiha i ka ua. Ma waho aʻe o ka mea nui a ko Roma i hāʻawi ai i ka wai kahe, kahi kumuhana a mākou i kūkākūkā mua ai.

He kūlanakauhale koʻikoʻi ʻo Sagunto (e ʻike i ka makana i ka wā Roma a me ka hale kiʻiʻoniʻoni a me ka circus capacity)

Loaʻa iā lākou kahi puka o luna a me kahi puka ma luna, akā ʻaʻole kahi haʻahaʻa, no laila he decanters lākou. ʻAʻole hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia lākou e ka gravity. Inā makemake ʻoe e mālama pono ʻoe i kahi puka haʻahaʻa

Aqueduct Italica

35 km aqueduct. He pūʻulu lua wai kona. Hoʻokomo mau ʻia nā decanters ma ka hope o ka aqueduct kokoke i nā kūlanakauhale.

Aia ma Bíbilis he 20 luawai/decanters. Aia kekahi gradient kiʻekiʻe ma waena o nā wahi kiʻekiʻe a haʻahaʻa a hoʻonohonoho lākou i kahi pūnaewele i ʻole e pohā ka paipu.

Ua like ka mamao o ke kiekie, ma kahi o 10m kaawale i ole e oi aku mamua o 1 atm.

No ka hoʻokiʻekiʻe ʻana i ka wai i Bilbilis, hoʻohana lākou i kahi siphon i hoʻohuli ʻia e hoʻohana ana i ke kumu o nā moku kamaʻilio.

(E nānā i nā ʻano ʻokoʻa o ke koki Roma)

E ʻike i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā siphons a me nā siphon inverted, i hoʻohana maikaʻi ʻia e ko Roma.

Aia ma waena o 7 a me 8 mau aqueduct o Pergamum mai nā au like ʻole. He mea maʻamau ka loaʻa ʻana ma mua o 1 aqueduct e hōʻoiaʻiʻo i ka lako wai.

ʻO Madradar aqueduct, ʻOi aku ma mua o 30 km ka mamao, ua hōʻuluʻulu ʻia ke kahe mai nā kumu like ʻole, i nā paipu no 12 km

40 km o nā paipu kanu ʻia e mālama ana i kahi hāʻule o 860m

30 knm paipu kepau i loko o nā lehu pōhaku i wili ʻia. He 3,5 km alakaʻi siphon me ke kiʻekiʻe o 190 m

Lugdunum Aqueduct, Lyon

He 4 aqueduct nui kona. ʻO ka mea nui ʻo Hier aqueduct me 85 km o ke kahawai, ʻo ke kumu he 40 km ma kahi laina pololei.

Ua hao ʻia ke kēpau a me nā metala a wehewehe kēia i ke kumu ʻaʻohe wahi i koe. He mea makamae loa na metala. Ma Sagunto, loaʻa iā mākou ka via del portico kahi e ʻike ai ʻoe i nā paipu alakaʻi.

Aqueduct Tarraco

ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia ke ala o kona aqueduct. I kekahi manawa ua hoʻohana ʻia nā ʻaka e hōʻikeʻike, no ka mea, ua uku ʻia nā hana e nā poʻe lehulehu, akā hiki ke hoʻoholo ʻia me nā siphons inverted a i ʻole nā ​​​​hana ʻē aʻe i ʻike mua ʻia e ko Roma.

ʻO Aqueduct o Segovia

ʻO Segovia aqueduct, kekahi o nā mea kaulana loa ma ka honua

Pela no keia aqueduct. ʻAʻole pono nā pio. He haʻahaʻa ke kūlanakauhale a kahe ka wai liʻiliʻi ma o ka waihona kālā, he liʻiliʻi.

ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia nā mea a pau e pili ana i kēia aqueduct 28 m kiʻekiʻe a me 127 m lōʻihi me 167 mau pio a me 24 mau poloka granite.

Aia kekahi pepa e hoʻolaha ana i ke kākoʻo o ka hana.

Uxama Aqueduct

46 km o ka aqueduct me ka ʻokoʻa kiʻekiʻe he 12 m. Aia nā lua wai ma kahi kiʻekiʻe aʻe ma mua o ka pae i hōʻea. He decanter 40m ma luna o ka laina hoʻopau.

Manaʻo lākou ua hoʻāla ʻia ka wai me kahi pūnāwai i kapa ʻia ʻo Rosario

Aqueduct ʻo Arles

He 2 aqueducts mai 20 a 30 km. Ua hui lākou ma kahi o 10 km mai Arles ma kahi puana.

ʻO nā aqueduct ʻē aʻe

Aqueducts a me Roman Engineering
  • ʻO Cherchel
  • Aix em Provence
  • Brevenne (70 km)
  • Frejús
  • Gades (100 km)
  • Cologne (100 km)
  • Nā Kūʻai
  • ʻO Cartago (130 km me 16 km o nā pio)
  • ʻO Valente
  • ʻO Constantinople (400 km) kekahi o nā hana hydraulic nui loa o ka honua kahiko
  • Ua kūkulu ʻia ʻo Las Médulas, ʻeli gula, he mau aqueducts i hui pū ʻia ma mua o 600 km ka lōʻihi
  • Roma, 11 aqueducts, ma kahi o 100 km lōʻihi, e hāʻawi ana i 1000 biliona m3 i ka lā i ke kūlanakauhale

Nā Kumuwaiwai a me nā kūmole

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