Makungwa makuru eNorth America

lake rakakwirira, remakungwa makuru ekuchamhembe kweamerica

Ichi chinyorwa manotsi akatorwa maGungwa makuru eNorth America, rakakura landform rakandifadza. Iwo manotsi anotorwa kubva kuchinyorwa uye uye kubva kuNational Geographic zvinyorwa, ini ndinosiya iro rebhaibheri kumagumo.

Ndinovimba unonakidzwa uye unowana zvinobatsira misi yese yandinosiya. Zvino pandinoverenga nezve maIndia ekuzvarwa aigara munzvimbo ino ini ndinokwanisa kunzwisisa kukura kwayo.

Novels uye zvinyorwa zvataitaura nezvazvo pablog uye zvakaiswa muNative North American Comanche uye Bhiza Rinopenga uye Custer

Madziva chii?

Madziva makuru eNorth America ari mashanu: Lake Superior, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, uye Lake Ontario. Ivo vanoverengera 84% yemvura nyowani muNorth America yese uye 20% yemvura yakachena papasi rese. Kugovera vangangoita mamirioni makumi mana maAmerican nemaCanada uye kudiridza huwandu hwakawanda hwezvirimwa.

Iwo ane 22700 bhiriyoni litita emvura yakachena.

Vakaumbwa sei?

Idzo dzakaumbwa apo mipata yakadzika yakavezwa nekufambira mberi uye kudzoka kwemazaya echando kwezviuru zvemakore akazadzwa nemvura yakanyungudika pakupera kwenguva yechando yekupedzisira.

1,5km gobvu rechando. Ichando chinoita sepulagi uye mvura yaipfuura nepasi payo yakaveza ivhu kuva migero.

Mugungwa rekumusoro mune zvindori zvakaumbwa nemvura ichimanikidza madhiri akanaka.

Great Lakes Mbiri

Madziva ese akabatana. Mvura inopinda mudziva repamusoro kubva kuchamhembe kwakadziva kumadokero, kubva ipapo kuenda kuLake Michigan neHuron, ayo ari maviri lobes edziva rimwe chete. Kubva kuHuron kuenda kuErie uko kunodzika pasi paNiagara Falls kuenda kuOntario, uye kubva ipapo kuenda kuAtlantic kuburikidza neSt. Lawrence River.

Iyo ndeimwe yeadiki akakurisa mafomu epasi mukondinendi. Ivo vanobva kune yekupedzisira chando zera muNorth America. Apo echando mamaira akati wandei akakora akatambanuka kubva kumaodzanyemba kweKansas kuenda kuArctic uye nekuwanda kwechando pakadzikira makore gumi nezviuru apfuura, vakachera mabheseni aive akazadzwa nekunyungudika ndokuzova Great Lakes. Iwo aripo madhiri uye madhiraini masystem haana kubuda kusvika makore zviuru zvitatu apfuura.

Lake rakakwirira

Iyo yepamusoro ndiyo hombe, dangwe uye zvishoma zvakasvibiswa, ndiko kuti, yakachengetedzwa zvakanaka. Kunyange zvakadaro, chando chiri kudzikira uye nyanza iri kudziya. ine mabhanga ane vanhu vashoma. Iyo inopa 581000 vagari uye 9500 mamirioni emarita anodyiwa pazuva.

Kudzika kwayo kuri 406 metres

Lake Superiror ndiro muviri wemvura nyowani ine yakakura kwazvo nzvimbo yepasi, iine inopfuura hafu yemvura yakazara yeMakungwa makuru mashanu.

Gungwa Michigan

Nyanza Michigan ine mvura ine ngozi zvine ngozi nekuda kwemassels anopinda ayo anobvisa phytoplankton. Inopa vanhu vanosvika mamirioni gumi nematanhatu vanodya marita zviuru makumi mana nezvina pazuva

Ndiyo chete iyo iri muUnited States chete

Manilou Canal paLake Michigan

Mussels uye cladophoric algae. Dead algae inoburitsa chepfu (inogadzira botulism toxin) inouraya kuhove neshiri.

Makuva e cladaphoras anogadzirwa.

Gungwa Huron

Nyanza Huron, ine mahombekombe ane hutano, asi panotanga kuve nemisodzi inoparadza uye kushandisa zvakanyanya salmon. Iyo inopa 3,1 mamirioni vagari vane 31600 litita anodyiwa pazuva

Ferret ndiye mudiki pane vemageological kutaura.

MuLake Huron mune mapasi epasi pevhu akakura kupfuura iyo Niagara.

Makore zviuru gumi apfuura pakanga paine mvura zhinji inomuka uye inodonha.

Mamiriro ekunze anokanganisa mwero wegungwa.

MuLake Huron mune ridge, gomo renje rematombo rakaramba chando. Izvo zvaivapo apo maPaleo-maAmerican vaive vatove kurarama. Vakawana mari.

Makore 7000 kusvika 8000 apfuura yaive nyika yakaoma. Ivo vanotenda kuti pane kuumbwa kwemurume wekuvhima caribou.

Gungwa reOntario

Lake Ontario ine dambudziko rekushatisa kwemaguta. nemvura yemvura uye mvura yakasviba uye nekugadzirwa kwemagetsi nezvinomera zvinoshandisa mvura yemugungwa sechinhu chinotonhorera. Inopa gumi, mamirioni vagari uye 10 mabhiriyoni emarita anodyiwa pazuva.

Iyo yakadzika mamita makumi mana nemana

Iwo mazinga e mercury uye polychlorinated biphenyls akakwirira zvekuti hove dzako zhinji hadzidyike

Makore zviuru zvishanu apfuura mvura yakakwira kusvika padanho razvino nekuda kweshanduko yemamiriro ekunze munzvimbo yakaunza mvura yakavagutisa.

Makomo akazara nemakomo muOntario anoratidza kuti nzvimbo yeGreat Lakes iri pasi pekumanikidzwa. Kune kumukira. Izvo zviratidzo zvechiitiko chekudengenyeka chinoita matunhu emakomo. iwo kudzvanyirira kutsemuka. Haina kugadzikana sezvairi sezvaitendwa kare. Hukuru hwayo huri pakati pe1 ne3 m kukwirira uye 5 - 10 m yakafara uye akawanda km emaragro. Yese izere nekumukira.

Kune kudengenyeka kwenyika kudiki kwazvo.

Kumugumo wekumabvazuva, muSan Lorenzo bheseni, pane chinhu chisina. Iyo ndiyo Subdury isina, Subdury basin kana Subdury chimiro. Ndiyo yechipiri pakakoromoka paPasi mushure megwenga reVredefot. Iyo 1,2 km dhayamita

Lake erie

Lake Erie ine yakawandisa mishonga. Iyo yakadzika pane mashanu, ine huwandu hwehuwandu hwevanhu pamiganhu yayo uye huwandu hwakanyanya hwekusvibisa. Runoff kubva pakurima inokanganisa algal blooms. Iyo inopa 12,2 mamirioni evagari vanoshandisa 26100 bhiriyoni litita pazuva. Iyo ndiyo yakadzika zvishoma 64 metres

Muzhizha ra2019, kuwanda kweiyo algae kwakafukidza 1699 mativi emakiromita egungwa. Aya algae anogona kuburitsa chepfu mumvura inokonzeresa ganda blisters uye kukuvara kwechiropa.

Long Point ine chitsuwa chakaumbwa nejecha rakapwanya magirazi echando.

Tsvaga Lake Eyre Bathymetric Mepu

Iine maviri manhamba, Long Point uye Anodiwa crick?, Iwo maviri akagadzirwa nejecha.

Niagara Falls, 1 mamirioni emita emvura anodonha muminiti imwe.

Kubva pakasiya madziva echando, mapopoma akwira makiromita gumi nemana kubva kuUpper Ontario kuenda kuLake Eyre.

Yakanyanya mamiriro ekunze zviitiko

Zvakawandisa, mamiriro ekunze ekunyanyisa ari kurova nzvimbo yeGreat Lakes nekuda kweshanduko yemamiriro ekunze uye anotarisirwa kuramba achiwedzera.

Vanorova dutu rinotyisa sokudaidzira mireniyumu dutu. Mafashama nekuda kwekufashama kwedanho regungwa iro rinoparadza mahombekombe eguta, masimba ane simba, nezvimwe.

Muna 2016, dutu rakagura magetsi kunzvimbo yekupa mvura muDuluth, guta riri kumahombekombe kweLake Superior, imwe yemitumbi mikuru yemvura yakachena papasi.

Ivo vari kuchengetedza mahombekombe eguta remadhorobha nematani makumi matanhatu patanhatu ematombo kudzivirira kukuvara, mugwagwa uri kupera uye mataundi madiki aya haana mabhajeti ekuramba achiwanazve.

Dzimwe mhando dzemamiriro ekunze dzinofungidzira kuti huwandu hwemadutu akanyanya munyika achapetwa kaviri padanho rega rega rekudziya kwepasi.

Tembiricha misiyano iri pakati pepakati nepakakwirira nzvimbo inofambisa iyo jet rwizi yakadzikiswa, zvichikonzera kudzikisira kwemhepo yazvino yakanganisa mwaka wemamiriro ekunze, madutu ari kuramba achiwedzera uye akasimba.

Mitemo

Muna 1972, nekutenderwa kweMutemo Wemvura Wakachena, mirau yakaoma yakamisikidzwa panzvimbo dzekuchenesa mvura dzakatungamira mukubviswa kwefosfeti kubva mumidziyo yekuwachira. Algae inokura nekukurumidza kana paine phosphorus. Pasina phosphorus haikure.

Kwemakore makumi maviri nemashanu zvese zvakafamba mushe uye mushure menguva ino kune zvekare matambudziko ealgae muGreat Lakes nekuda kwekurima.

Panzvimbo pekurima ivhu uye kurisa mupfudze gore rega rega, varimi vakakurudzirwa kushandisa nzira yekudyara yakananga. Asi mhando iyi yehunyanzvi inoda manyowa egranular kuti ikure zvakanaka uye dambudziko nderekuti compost isati yavharwa muvhu uye izvozvi phosphorus granules inoramba iri mumasentimita mashanu epasi uye kana mvura ichizadza ivhu rinoita saizvozvo. uye voguma mumakungwa

Uye kunonaya zvakanyanya uye zvakanyanya uye kuedza kuri kuitiswa kudzikisira kumhanya kubva kuminda.

Natsiridza monoculture ivhu nekudyara zvirimwa zvekuvhara mumwaka wekurima.

Pano isu tinobatanidza kune zvinyorwa zveKiss pasi. Tsvoda Pasi: Regenerative Zvekurima izvo zvinogona kuonekwa paNetflix https://www.netflix.com/es/title/81321999

Iko kukanganisa kwezvekurima

Dambudziko rakakura rinokonzerwa nekushandiswa kwakanyanya kweiyo CAFO (Yakagadziriswa Kushongedzerwa Kwezvipfuyo Kudya)

Bheseni reGreat Lakes rinodhirowa mazana mashanu emamiriyoni emarita emvura zuva nezuva kudiridza zvirimwa. Iyo inoverengera 1500% yeCanada yekurima kugadzirwa uye 25% yeUnited States.

Iyo yakazara nzvimbo inodyarwa ndeye 160,4 miriyoni mahekita muUnited States uye 37,8 mamirioni mahekita muCanada, kazhinji pasi peakasimba monoculture. Ivo vanowanzo kurima chibage, soya uye huswa gore gore.

Dambudziko remunhu mumwechete uyu nderekuti sezvo ivhu rakashomeka rinoda manyowa akawanda, kana munda uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge waderera

Nekuisa fetereza yakawanda, nitrogen uye phosphorus zvisina kunyorwa nenyika kuburikidza nekumhanyisa zvinopedzisira zvasvika pamitero inosvika kumakungwa makuru. Kamwe ipapo, algae inodya izvi zvinovaka muviri uye ichibereka nenzira hombe, inotora zuva, oxygen uye kudzipa mhuka. Miti yakafa uye kuora kwea algae, mabhakitiriya anoba kunyange yakanyanya okisijeni nekutyora zvinhu zvakasikwa.

Kuwedzera algae kunokonzerwa nefosforasi kwakamanikidza guta hombe muOhio kuvhara mvura.

Iyo huru dema dutu

Iyo 4000-square-kilometre swamp. Yakanga iri sango rezvisikwa rezvakawandisa zvinovaka muviri uye pakutanga kwezana ramakore rechimakumi maviri rakanga rave kuda kunyatsoomeswa kuitira kuti vagare vakwanise kurima ivhu rayo rakaorera.

Diatoms

Diatoms inhengo yegungwa inowanikwa mumakungwa epasi, nzizi, nemadhamu zvinounza inopfuura hafu yeoksijeni mumhepo, zvakanyanya kupfuura sango reAmazon, rinoonekwa sebapu repasi.

Pasina diatoms madhamu aigona kudzipwa nekushandira sosi yekutanga yechikafu.

Mhando dzinosvika zviuru zvitatu zvemadhiatom akaonekwa muGreat Lakes uye zvinofungidzirwa kuti mamwe akawanda achiripo kuti awanikwe.

Ivo vanoshandisa mwenje kushandura mvura uye carbon dioxide kuita makabhohaidhiretsi ari nyore uye chikafu chinodziya chezooplankton.

Ivo vawana chinovhiringidza chimiro, ma diatoms eGreat Lakes ari kuita madiki uye madiki. Vanotenda kuti imhaka yekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze, sezvo mvura iri mumadhamu ichidziya, ma diatoms ane nguva yakaoma kuyangarara mumvura isina kunyorova pamusoro uye ivo vanonyura, asi pavanonyura kugona kwavo kwekutora mwenje kunodzikira.

Iwo ari kuita madiki uye madiki uye pane mashoma uye iwo ari kutsiviwa nemamwe marudzi ealki e "yakashata mhando" kana kunyange inotyisa

Mussels muLake Erie dzakadzora diatoms ne90%

Pasina diatoms iyo webhu yekudya inodonha. Zvishoma diatoms, zvinoreva zvishoma zooplankton izvo zvinoreva kushoma hove.

U semunhu ari mudumbu nduru yarasika, dambudziko rinowedzera.

Mifananidzo inotipa pfungwa yehukuru hwemadziva

Nguva anishinaabe : zaasigaakwii, zvinoreva apo shiri dzinosvika muchirimo uye dzinoerekana dzatorwa nedutu.

Bvisa makungwa makuru

Ichi chinyorwa cheNational Geographic, kwavanotiudza nezvemakungwa makuru uye vanoita chinhu chinonakidza kutevedzera kuti vanoaburitsa kubva kune data rakawanikwa nedivi scanar sonar.

Kubva pane idzi data uye iwo aunotoziva, mibvunzo inomutswa nezve kuumbwa kweiyi yakasikwa mega-chimiro uye kuti zvaive zvakaita sei munguva yakapfuura uye kuti ramangwana rayo ringave rakaita sei.

Ini ndinosiya iyo zvinyorwa pano (haisisiri paYouTube, ndine urombo kwazvo) uye pasi peiyo data iyo yandakawana inonakidza.

Kune zambuko rekumisa iro Mackinac Bridge iro rinoyambuka iyo Strait yeMackinac ine 8 km kureba pakati peLake Huron neMichigan.

MuStrait yeMackinac mune yakadzika 40km x 1km yakafara nzira iyo nyoka pakati pematambudziko.

Kudhonza Nyanza Maggiore vanoona kuti makore zviuru zvishanu kusvika mazana manomwe apfuura yaive rwizi. Ese maakaunzi akapatsanurwa kubva kune mumwe nemumwe, zvisingaite zvakabatana nehova.

Kuputsika kwechikepe

Kune dzinoputsika ngarava mazana matanhatu nemazana matanhatu emakungwa mashanu. Iyo yekufambisa mune ye6000, 5 uye kutanga kwe18,19th century yaive yakanyanya. Yaive nzira yakabatikana zvikuru nechikepe pasi rose.

Edmund Fitzgerald achinyura, chikepe chine mukurumbira kwazvo chakaparara muna 1975. Ndiyo ngarava hombe yati yambonyura muGreat Lakes. Yakanyura kusvika 163 m nedutu rakaipisisa mumakore makumi matatu. 3 vakafa avo vachiri mukati mebharo. Yakadambuka nepakati. Vanofunga kuti yakanyura pa29 km / h

Izvi zvinopa pfungwa yekunze kwegungwa uye nemhando yaro yemusango

Source:

2 mifungo pane "Makungwa Makuru eNorth America"

  1. Chinyorwa chinonakidza Mr. Nacho. Ini ndadzidza zvakawanda kubva pachishamiso ichi chechisikigo chave chiri chisarudzo mutsika nehupfumi hwenyika mbiri idzi dzakakosha. Ndatenda zvikuru nekunyora ichi chinyorwa. Kwaziso.

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