Umzi mveliso 4.0

Umzi mveliso 4.0 uyintoni kwaye ungayiguqula njani imboni

La imboni 4.0 Yiparadigm entsha yemizi-mveliso ejolise ekuhlaziyeni umzi mveliso njengoko usazi ngoku. Sele iphunyezwa kwiinkampani ezininzi zangoku, kwaye kujongwe kuyo kancinane ukufudukela kwezinye iinkampani. Ngale ndlela, inguqu epheleleyo yedijithali iyakwenziwa kwimizi-mveliso nakwiinkampani ezikrelekrele ngakumbi, ezifanelekileyo nezisebenzayo.

Ukuthatha le ndlela usiya kwishishini 4.0 lithuba elihle lokuphucula inkampani yakho, Thatha ithuba kuzo zonke iitekhnoloji ezintsha kwaye, ekugqibeleni, sidale ishishini elinamandla ngakumbi, elisebenzayo nelizuzayo xa kuthelekiswa nomzi mveliso oqhelekileyo.

Imbali yeshishini. Utshintsho lwesine kwimizi-mveliso

Imbali yolu shishino iphawulwe ngohlaziyo olutshintshe indlela abantu abasebenza ngayo. Inkqubo ye- Umzi-mveliso we-4.0 awuyonto engaphaya kohlaziyo lwesine lweshishini, okanye utshintsho lwesine lweparadigm olwenziweyo kweli candelo. Kungoko igama layo. Kodwa ukuze uyiqonde ngcono, kuya kufuneka ujonge ngasemva ...

  • Umzi mveliso 1.0: Uguquko lokuqala kumzi mveliso lweza kubulela kwinjini yomphunga ukuqhuba uthotho loomatshini abazenzekelayo abavumela ukunciphisa iindleko zabasebenzi kunye nokuphucula kakhulu imveliso. Kwenzekile eYurophu nakuMntla Melika phakathi kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX ukuya kuthi ga kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX.
  • Umzi mveliso 2.0: uguquko lwesibini lweshishini lwaluza kuza phakathi kuka-1870 no-1914. Kule meko kungenxa yokufakwa kombane kwimizi-mveliso, njengomthombo wamandla omtsha. Oko kuzise amandla amatsha kushishino, kunye nokutyhala kwimveliso yobuninzi, kunye nenkqubela phambili kwezetekhnoloji enje ngomnxeba, ibhalbhu yesibane, njl.
  • Umzi mveliso 3.0: inyathelo lesithathu kuhlaziyo lweshishini lwafika xa ixesha ledijithali okanye lekhompyuter lifikile kwicandelo. Ngoku zonke iinkqubo zeshishini zinokulawulwa ngendlela engcono kwaye iikhompyuter zinokunceda ngeendlela ezininzi (uyilo, ukubala, unxibelelwano, ...). Olu tshintsho lwesithathu lwaluza kuza ngee-80s.
  • Umzi mveliso 4.0: kumashumi ambalwa eminyaka emva kweyesithathu, isine besiza kufika. Iqhutywa kakhulu kwaye ikhawuleziswa yi-ICT. Ngoku amandla amatsha ayongezwa ngelifu, i-IoT, i-AI, iirobhothi, i-nanotechnology, ikhompyuter ye-quantum, ushicilelo lwe-3D, izithuthi ezizimeleyo, njl. Nangona uninzi lwezi teknoloji lukhona iminyaka, kodwa kule 4.0 yenzelwe ukuzisebenzisa ngamandla kwinqanaba lemveliso.
inguquko yesine kwezamashishini, nabo bonke ababengaphambi kwayo

Ngubani owaziyo ikamva likuphatheleni, kwaye ukuba ukwanda kobukrelekrele bokuzenzela obungaphaya kwento esiyaziyo ngoku kungathetha enye inguquko enkulu apho umsebenzi wabantu ungafuneki kwimveliso ... . Ingxaki yokunciphisa ingxaki eya kubangelwa kukusilela kwegalelo labasebenzi endaweni yoomatshini.

Yintoni i-Industry 4.0?

La Umzi mveliso i-4.0 ayisiyonto yexesha elizayo, sele ifikile kwaye uzimisele ukuhlala. Iinkampani zineendlela ezimbini onokukhetha kuzo, ukukhwela inqanawa yomtshangatshangiso kwaye uxhamle kumandla ayo okanye ishiye ngasemva ngokungayamkeli inguqu epheleleyo yedijithali. I-AI, iirobhothi, ikhomputha yelifu, ikhompyuter yenkungu, kunye nekhompyuter yomda inezibonelelo ezinkulu, nakwii-SMEs.

Ngokucacileyo, ayizizo zonke iinkampani ezifuna zonke ezi zinto Iitekhnoloji ezivelayo, kodwa banokwamkela abanye babo. Obu buchwephesha bedijithali bunokubuyisa iinkqubo zesintu.

por ejemplo, Inga:

  • Faka endaweni ye-bureau yangoku ecothayo kwaye ubambe ngakumbi kwaye ubiza ixabiso eliphantsi enkqubo yedijithali.
  • Ngokukhawuleza nangokufanelekileyo uhlalutye umthamo omkhulu wedatha ngenxa yeDatha eNkulu. Oko kunokuthetha ukwenza uqikelelo lweemarike okanye ukuziqhelanisa neemfuno ezintsha ngokukhawuleza okukhulu. Ukongeza, lindela izixhobo ozifunayo kolu tshintsho, njengokunyusa oomatshini bokuvelisa, amandla okugcina, njl. Umzekelo, idatha esetyenziswa ngabasebenzisi abaninzi kuthungelwano lwentlalo okanye ukukhangela inokusetyenziselwa ukwazi ukuba bafuna ntoni ngalo mzuzu, bathanda ntoni kwaye yintoni abangayithandiyo, bakwazi ukuphucula imikhankaso yentengiso kwaye babanike oko bakukhangelayo kakhulu.
  • IoT (i-Intanethi yeZinto) okanye i-Intanethi yeZinto, inokuqhagamshela iinkqubo ezahlukeneyo kunye noomatshini omnye komnye, oya kuthi ubanike "ubukrelekrele obuhlangeneyo" ukuze bakwazi ukunxibelelana kunye nokusebenza ngokugqibeleleyo. Oko kunokunciphisa ukubambezeleka phakathi kweenkqubo zokuvelisa, ukuthintela iingxaki, njl. Umzekelo, umatshini owenza indawo oza kusetyenziswa ngumatshini olandelayo unokuxela ukulibaziseka kwalo matshini ucime kwaye ungasebenzisi mandla xa ulindile.

Nangona kunjalo, konke oku kuzisa imiceli mngeni emitsha, enje ukhuseleko. Oku kubaluleke ngakumbi, kodwa iitekhnoloji ezinje nge-AI okanye ilifu linokuthetha ukuba oku akubangeli ngxaki kumqeshi, kodwa endaweni yokuba umntu wesithathu abe noxanduva lokugcina amanyathelo okhuseleko ayimfuneko. Ke eli shishini kufuneka likhathazeke kuphela ngomsebenzi walo.

Ukwamkelwa komzi mveliso 4.0

uhlengahlengiso lwelaphu lezemveliso kushishino 4.0

Ngokwenene khange ivele nje, amanyathelo amancinci athathiwe kwixesha elidlulileyo ade afikelele kolu hlengahlengiso kwimizi-mveliso 4.0. Amanye amaza obuchwephesha obutsha enze le paradigm ukuba yenzeke. Elinye lala maza laqala ngoo-80s, ngeekhompyutha nokusetyenziswa kwesoftware yeCAD / CAM, kunye neFMS (iFlexible Manufacturing System) kunye neenkqubo zeCIM (eziDityanisiweyo zeMveliso yeKhompyuter).

Oko kwaqala ukukhulula iinkqubo zemveliso esele zenzekile kwaye zinombane. Kwiminyaka engama-90 elinye inyathelo elikhulu liza kuza, njengo-lukwenziwa kwe-Intanethi kunye nezinye iitekhnoloji ezinxulumene nayo, ezinje ngeekhonsepthi zeCRM (uLwalamano lwaBathengi), i-SCM (uLawulo lweKhonkco loNikezelo), njl.

Con SCM ulawulo lwekhonkco lonikezelo lunokwenziwa, ukuphucula inkqubo yokuhlangabezana neemfuno zabathengi ngokufanelekileyo. Oku kuhamba kukuhamba kunye nokugcinwa kwezinto zokwenza imveliso kuye esiphelweni semveliso kunye nokubeka imveliso kwintengiso yabathengi.

Kwelinye icala, i CRM Yenye inkqubo yolawulo esekwe kubudlelwane nabathengi. Isicwangciso sokuthengisa apho olu hlobo lwesoftware luye lwanegalelo elikhulu, kubandakanya iinkqubo zolawulo lweshishini okanye i-SGE enje ngeCRM uqobo, kodwa kunye ne-ERP (ukuCwangciswa koShishino lokuCwangciswa), i-PLM (uLawulo lokuPhila kweMveliso), njl.

Kwinkulungwane yama-XNUMX, inkqubela phambili entsha iza kufika enje ngengqondo M2M (Umatshini kuMatshini), umxholo obhekisa kunxibelelwano okanye ukuhanjiswa kwedatha phakathi koomatshini ababini kwishishini. Kwaye oko kuya kufikelela kumbulelo wayo kwi-IoT, eya kuthi ivumele kuphela unxibelelwano ngeebhasi kunye neeprotokholi zeshishini, kodwa kunye nokunxibelelana kwe-Intanethi kwaba matshini.

Inyathelo nenyathelo olu phuculo lwamkelwe, ngakumbi eJamani, apho banenye yezona mveliso ezizenzekelayo nezihambele phambili emhlabeni. Ngapha koko, kwakulapho kwagqitywa khona igama elithi Industry 4.0. Ukusuka apho, iye yanwenwela kwamanye amazwe amaninzi emhlabeni, kwaye phantse yaba lusindiso kwiinkampani ezininzi ezisengxakini.

Ishishini 4.0 liyichaphazela njani inkampani?

Omnye wemibuzo yokuqala oosomashishini abaninzi abayibuzayo kukuba inokukuchaphazela njani le nto. Ngokwenene igama elifanelekileyo liya kuba yinzuzo, okanye ichaphazele imeko yelizwi, kuba iya kuthetha ukuphucuka okukhawulezileyo kunye nokuqaphelekayo kwinkampani.

Kwakhona, uhlaziyo luhlala luza ngokukhawuleza. Nangona kuyinyani ukuba akukho simahla kwezinye iingxaki, njengotyalo-mali ukwenza utshintsho olwenziweyo. Ukongeza, kwezinye iimeko unokufuna uqeqesho lwabasebenzi. Uninzi lwemithombo evulekileyo okanye yeeprojekthi zasimahla ezinokusombulula ingxaki yeendleko ngokungahlawuli mali, ngenxa yoko ingxaki incitshisiwe kuphela.

Ukuba wamkela isicwangciso se Inguqu iye kumzi-mveliso 4.0, unokuqaphela ukuphuculwa ngakumbi kumanqanaba aliqela:

  • Imizi-mveliso kunye neenkampani. Umzi-mveliso we-4.0 unokwenza oomatshini abazihambelayo kunye nokunxibelelana phakathi koomatshini abakrelekrele ngakumbi, basebenzise iinkqubo zemveliso, zibenze babhetyebhetye kwaye basebenze ngokukuko, kunye nokufumana izibonelelo ezikhulu. Njengomzekelo wokuba i-M2M ithathe inqanaba elitsha endikhe ndathetha ngalo ngaphambili.
  • Ukubhalwa kwamanani. Ngokwazisa ubuchwepheshe obutsha obuphambili kunye neenkqubo zokufakwa kwikhompyuter, iinkqubo ezininzi ezidla ixesha kwaye zinobunzima zinokuphuculwa, ngakumbi ezolawulo. Izixhobo ezinobunkunkqele ngakumbi, ezinjengokulinganisa, ukubeka esweni kunye nokuqikelela, zinokusetyenziselwa ukuqikelela utshintsho kunye nokulungelelanisa ngcono, ukuyenza ibe yinkampani enokhuphiswano ngakumbi. Ingabandakanya i-HMI (Isinxibelelanisi Somatshini Wabantu), ukuphucula inkxaso yomsebenzisi.
  • Hypercimbonakalo. IoT izakuzisa unxibelelwano kubo bonke oomatshini kunye nezinye izixhobo. Abanyanzelekanga ukuba babe ngoomatshini kuphela, banokuba zizithuthi zothutho ukuze bazi ukulibaziseka okunokwenzeka, benze uninzi lwezinto zinokubonelela ngolwazi, njl.
  • Iirobhothi eziphambili. Iirobhothi zisetyenzisiwe kumzi-mveliso amashumi eminyaka, kodwa ngoku abo matshini banokuba ngokuchanekileyo ngakumbi nangokufanelekileyo enkosi kwi-AI. Ubukrelekrele bokwenza bungabenza bafunde, baphucule, bathathe izigqibo ngendlela esengqiqweni njengokwenza komntu, njl. Oku ikakhulu kubonelela ngesidingo sabaqhubi ababekade bekhona ngaphambili xa umatshini wayengazi ukuba enze njani imisebenzi ethile ... oomatshini, iinkonzo zenkonzo, izithuthi ezizimeleyo, njl.
  • kweenknzo. Endaweni yeenkampani ezineenkonzo ezithe nkqo, ukudityaniswa kweendlela zokusebenzisana ezinqamlezileyo njengokukhutshwa kwabasebenzi nako kunokuphuculwa. Iinkampani ezininzi zifuna amahlakani kwiinkonzo zangaphandle. Oku kuqhelekile, umzekelo, imiba yezokhuseleko okanye amaziko edatha. Endaweni yokujongana neseva ebonakalayo, baqesha le nkonzo kwilifu (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, Storage, ...).
  • Idatha enkulu: ivumela uhlalutyo olukhulu lwedatha, nokuba yidatha yophando lwangaphakathi, idatha yabathengi, kunye nohlalutyo lwedatha kuthungelwano lwentlalo, njl.
  • Ukhomyutha yamafu. Ilifu linokunika iinkonzo ezininzi kwiinkampani zabo nabuphi na ubungakanani, nkqu nabazimeleyo. Ukusuka kwiwebhu ukusingathwa kwivenkile yakho ekwi-intanethi okanye iwebhusayithi esemthethweni, kugcino, isoftware njengenkonzo, iVPS (i-Virtual Private Server), ukhuseleko lwangaphandle kunye nezisombululo zokugcina, nokunye okuninzi. Ukongeza, inokuncediswa nokubizwa ngokuba yi-fog computing (phakathi kwelifu kunye nomda) kunye nekhomputha ye-edge. Ukuba zizixhobo ezisemacaleni ezivela kwiiselfowuni, iikhompyuter, okanye koomatshini abaxhunyiwe kwimizi mveliso. Umzekelo, khawucinge ngenqanawa yezithuthi ezizimeleyo ezihanjiswa ziqhagamshelwe ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo ezikuloo mda kwaye zithumela ulwazi malunga nendlela, amaxesha, iirobhothi, izithuthi, njl. ezo zithuthi ukufumana ishedyuli ngokukhawuleza kunye neendlela okanye ukunqanda indawo ezixineneyo zezithuthi. Oko kuya kuphucula ukusetyenziswa kwempahla kunye nokunciphisa iindleko zepetroli kunye nexesha.
  • Ukushicilelwa kwe-3D. Ngombulelo kolu hlobo lokushicilela, iimodeli ze-3D zazo zonke iintlobo zezinto ezinokwenziwa zinokufakwa, ukusuka kwiiplastikhi zeplastikhi (iiplastikhi), ukuya kweminye imicu efana nenayiloni, edlula kwikhonkrithi, kwaye ezinye zezamashishini zinokwenza iinxalenye zesinyithi ezingenakwenzeka ngomngundo, ngokudlula, njl. Olu luvo lube luphuculo olukhulu kushishino.
  • I-VR, RA, kunye neMRI. Ubunyani bokwenyani, ubunyani obungagqitywanga kunye nenyani exubekileyo inokunceda kumasebe afana neR & D kuyilo kunye nokulinganisa iimveliso ezintsha, nokuba yindlela yokubonisa iimveliso zakho kunye neenkonzo kumthengi.

Kuyabonakala, akuyomfuneko ukuphumeza onke la manqaku kwishishini 4.0. Ezinye zinokuba lilize ngokuxhomekeke ekubeni zeziphi iinkampani. Kodwa ngokuqinisekileyo ubuncinci bamanqaku athile okanye aliqela kuwo anokulinceda ishishini lakho.

Uqala njani ukumilisela?

Ukuba uzimisele ukumilisela umzi mveliso we-4.0 Kwishishini lakho, kufuneka uqale wazi ukuba kukho uthotho lwezithintelo ekufuneka uzoyisile. Enye yezona zinto ziphambili kukusilela kwenkcubeko yedijithali okanye ukungabikho koqeqesho kwiinkqubo zekhompyuter. Oko kunye nokumelana notshintsho lwabasebenzi kuhlala kuyenye yeengxaki zokuqala. Kodwa akukho nto ingasombululi uqeqesho, kwiimeko ezininzi inokuba yinto encinci kakhulu, kwezinye ayiyomfuneko ...

Enye ye amanqaku angekhoyo Ngexesha lokuphumeza olu hlobo lweparadigm, kuhlala kungabikho kwesicwangciso esifanelekileyo sokwenza imveliso kwezamashishini. Kuya kufuneka ujonge kwaye uhlalutye into ekufuneka ishishini lakho likwazi ukuyiphumeza. Ngaphandle kwesicwangciso awuyi kude kakhulu. Ukongeza, kuya kufuneka uyazi ukuba ubakhathalele njani abasebenzi bakho, kuba baya kuba yinjineli yotshintsho oluya kwi-Industry 4.0 (oko kuthetha ukuqonda, uqeqesho kunye nobungcali).

Kufuneka wenze njalo fumana amaqabane obuchwephesha afanelekileyo. Iinkampani ezinje nge-IBM, Red Hat okanye iTelefonica zinceda iinkampani ezininzi eSpain ukuba zenze olu tshintsho ngenxa yesisombululo seshishini labo. Baza kubonelela ngezixhobo, iinkonzo kunye nokhuseleko oluyimfuneko kutshintsho.

Nje ukuba ucace, amanqanaba okuphumeza Umzi mveliso we-4.0 ungashwankathelwa ngolu hlobo:

  • Isazisi: mzuzu apho uhlalutyo lobuchwephesha kunye nemeko yenkampani yenziwe. Apha imeko yokukhuphisana kunye nemarike nayo kufuneka ihlaziyiwe. Ngale ndlela, inqanaba lokuvuthwa kwenkampani lifunyenwe ukujongana notshintsho, kuchonga amathuba okuphucula kunye neendawo ezibuthathaka zokuqinisa.
  • Ukhetho: amathuba okuphucula afunyenwe kwisigaba esidlulileyo kunye neenjongo ezifunwayo ziya kuhlaziywa. Kuya kufuneka ujonge iitekhnoloji ezifanelekileyo ezinokukunceda ukwahlula phakathi kokhuphiswano, ukonga kunye nokuphuculwa kwemveliso, kunye nokubanakho ukuphumeza ukuphuculwa ngakunye (cazulula iindleko, ixesha, uqeqesho ...).
  • Ukumiliselwa: Nguwo lo mzuzu wenyaniso, xa lonke uphuculo oluxutyushwe apha ngasentla luphunyezwa. Ngesicwangciso esiqulunqiweyo, uya kuba nayo yonke imisebenzi okanye amanyathelo oza kuwalandela kwishedyuli ukufezekisa injongo.

Icandelo 4.0 eSpain

Iqhuba njani iSpain kolu shishino 4.0

Nceda uqaphele ukuba uqoqosho lwamazwe luxhomekeke kakhulu kwi ilaphu mveliso, kunye nezisongelo zeengxaki zoqoqosho, le nto inokuba sisicwangciso esiliqili sokuphucula ukhuphiswano kunye nokuziqhelanisa ngokukhawuleza kwicandelo eliguquka kakhulu. Ingxaki yangoku ye-SARS-CoV-2 inokuba sisonyuso osifunayo ukuze ukwazi ukukhetha le paradigm.

La Komishoni yaseYurophu Izibekele iinjongo ezinamabhongo ngokwe-GDP efakelwe lishishini, nangona iCovid-19 iphazamise zonke ezo zicwangciso. Ezo njongo ze-EC bezilindele ukuba amazwe asekuhlaleni, phakathi kweSpain afunyanwe, aya kuba nepesenti ye-16-20% nge-2020.

Ngaphandle kolo qikelelo, ISpain iye yarhoxa emva kwezo njongo, kuba apha ibimalunga ne-14% kuphela. Utyalomali oluninzi kufuneka lwenziwe kwi-R + D + i ukuphucula le meko, kuba zininzi iitalente eSpain, kodwa amanye amathuba kunye notyalo-mali ayasilela. Ngaphandle kwala manani, uMzi-mveliso we-4.0 unokunceda ukufezekisa injongo yase-Yuropu kwaye yenze ilaphu lesizwe elivelisa ngakumbi likhuphisane kakhulu kwihlabathi liphela.

IYurophu iyayidinga loo nto ukuba iyafuna ukhuphiswano ngokuchasene ne-United States ne China. I-Russia ayibonakalisi sisoyikiso esikhulu kwezoqoqosho kwi-Yurophu, kuba amazwe afana ne-Jamani kuphela anokuba sele ekhuphisana nawo ngokulingana. Kodwa nangona kunjalo, ilizwe ngalinye elilungu kufuneka liphakanyiselwe kulwakhiwo olungxamisekileyo.

I-DESI okanye i-EC Digital Economy kunye ne-Index Index icacile. Amazwe ayathanda IDenmark, iSweden neFinland Baphakathi kwabo banamanani anoqoqosho olukumgangatho ophezulu kwi-EU, kwaye ayisiyongxaki yokuba bakonwabele nelinye lawona mazwe azezentlalontle kunye nozinzo kwezoqoqosho.

Ukuba uhlalutya imboni yaseSpain xa kuthelekiswa namaqabane ayo aseYurophu, uyaqonda ukuba zininzi Amanqaku abuthathaka kunyango:

  • Utyalomali olusezantsi kwi-R + D + i, nge-1,24% kwimeko yaseSpain. Kukude kakhulu kwi-3% ye-avareji eYurophu, okanye kumazwe afana neSweden neSwitzerland ane-3,3%. Oku kunokubonwa njengenkcitho enkulu yoluntu, kodwa eneneni lutyalo-mali, kuba amazwe afana ne-US atyala ipesenti efanayo kwi-GDP yabo kwiYurophu kwaye emva koko ibuyiselwe kwinzuzo ye-50% ye-GDP ngenxa yale utyalo-mali.
  • Ukuzinikela okuphantsi kutshintsho lwedijithali lweshishini. Ukuba nelaphu lemizi-mveliso apho kuqeshwe abantu abaziqeshayo kunye nee-SME, abaninzi abaziboni benakho ukuqala indlela yedijithali okanye abayithathi njengebalulekileyo. Kodwa kunjalo. Umzekelo, ivenkile encinci yempahla edolophini inokwenza ivenkile yewebhu kunye nokwandisa ukuthengisa kwayo kwilizwe liphela. Ngakumbi nangakumbi kwiimeko ezinjengezo zinamava e-coronavirus.
  • Ubukho obuphantsi kwiimarike zamanye amazwe kunye nobukhulu beshishini. Ngaphandle kwento yokuba uninzi lwamashishini aseSpain athumela ngaphandle iYurophu namanye amazwe, njengepesenti xa kuthelekiswa namazwe afana neFrance, iJamani, njl. Ayisiyiyo loo nto kuphela, ubukhulu kunye neenkampani ezinkulu ziyafuneka. Nazi iinkampani ezimbalwa ezinkulu, ezinye iinkampani ezinje ngeRapsol, iCepsa, Inditex, iEndesa, iTelefonica, isihlalo, njl.
  • Iindleko zamandla aphezulu. E-Spain, indleko zombane, ukongeza kweminye imithombo, ziphezulu xa kuthelekiswa namanye amazwe. Oku kwenza izinto nzima kumashishini afuna olu hlobo lwamandla, kuba yenza imveliso ibize kakhulu kwaye yenza amaxabiso okugqibela kufuneka alungelelanise ukufumana umda wenzuzo, ubenze banciphise ukhuphiswano.
  • Umahluko kwimithombo yengeniso. ISpain isuke ekuxhomekekeni okuphezulu kulwakhiwo (isitena sebhola) ukuya kukuxhomekeka okuphezulu kukhenketho. Ibhamu enye yaqhuma ngengxaki yehlabathi ka-2008, kwaye ngoku i-SARS-CoV-2 iye yalimala okwesibini. Uqoqosho alunakuvunyelwa ukuba lubonakale ludodobala kwingxaki nganye, kuyafuneka iintlobo ezahlukeneyo kunye nokuzinikela kwamanye amacandelo angachaphazelekanga kwezi ngxaki.

Kodwa bonke inesisombululo, okanye ubuncinci ...

Icandelo 4.0: uncedo lwaseSpain luyimfuneko

Ngomzi-mveliso we-4.0 okanye oxhunyiwe, banakho ukunciphisa ezinye iimpembelelo ezimbi yamanqaku angaphambili. Umzekelo, ukuba siphinda sihlalutye iimpembelelo zokuphumeza le paradigm intsha ngokubhekisele kumanqaku angaphambili, kuya kufuneka:

  • Utyalomali olusezantsi kwi-R + D + i kunye nokwahluka kwemithombo yengeniso. Ngale ndlela, iShishini le-4.0 alinasibonelelo ngokuthe ngqo. Ngurhulumente ekufuneka aluqwalasele ngokutsha utyalomali. Kodwa inokwenza okuninzi malunga namaqamza, ikhuthaza icandelo lezemveliso njengeyona njini iphambili yezoqoqosho eSpain.
  • Ukuzinikela okuphantsi kutshintsho lwedijithali lweshishini. Utshintsho kwidijithali lwenkampani lunokuzisa izibonelelo ezinkulu ezinjengezo zikhankanywe kumacandelo angaphambili. Nokuba uziqeshile okanye uyi-SME, ukubhalwa kwedijithali kwishishini kunokuzisa izibonelelo ezilungileyo kuphela, ukusebenza ngokukuko kunye nemveliso ephezulu.
  • Iindleko zamandla aphezulu. Ukonga ekusebenziseni itekhnoloji entsha kunye nokuba neshishini elinobuqili kunye nokunxibelelana kungakhokelela kunciphiso lweendleko zamandla. Ukusebenza ngokukuko kunye nokugcinwa kwamandla kungasinciphisa esi sifo sikhona eSpain. Ukongeza, iya kuhamba kunye nokuphuculwa kwemveliso kunye neendleko ezincitshisiweyo ukuya kuthi ga kwi-20%, ukuncitshiswa kweendleko kulungiselelo lwe-10-20%, uluhlu olusezantsi lwe-30-50% kunye nokwehliswa kweendleko ngenxa yeengxaki ezisemgangathweni kumashumi amabini %.
  • Ubukho obuphantsi kwiimarike zamanye amazwe kunye nobukhulu beshishini. Ukuba uhlalutya lonke uphuculo lwamanqaku angaphambili nguShishino 4.0, inokuba nefuthe lesibambiso sokukhula kubungakanani beshishini kunye nobukho obukhulu kwinqanaba lamazwe aphesheya. Into eza kuvala umsantsa eSpain ukuze ifane namaqabane ayo asekuhlaleni kunye nokuzimisela okungcono kwilizwe lonke.

Okungakumbi ixesha Thatha iinkampani ukuqala utshintsho lwedijithali kuya kuthetha inzuzo ephantsi kunye nokhuphiswano oluncinci, kuba ukhuphiswano lunokuhamba phambi kwakho.

Ukuba ungumntu ongaphumliyo njengathi kwaye ufuna ukusebenzisana ekugcinweni nasekuphuculweni kweprojekthi, unokwenza umnikelo. Yonke imali iya kuthenga iincwadi kunye nezixhobo zokuvavanya kunye nokwenza izifundo