Imbali yaseSpain nguArturo Pérez-Reverte

Imbali yaseSpain nguArturo Pérez-Reverte

Ndithathe le ncwadi kwithala leencwadi (ungayithenga nge Amazon). Ndaqala ukufunda ndaza ndabona into engaqhelekanga. Yayinesitayile esimangalisayo, izahluko ezimfutshane kakhulu, ulwimi oluqhelekileyo, kunye neetoni zentsimbi. Zazikhangeleka njengamanqaku endaweni yencwadi. Ndilindele into efanayo Imbali encinci yeSpain nguJuan Pablo Fusi, kodwa bendiphazama.

Kwaye ngenene, ukufunda nje isiciko sangasemva (into endingayithandiyo ukuyenza) kuqinisekisile urhano. Imbali yaseSpain, kukudityaniswa kwamanqaku athe wapapashwa nguArturo Pérez-Reverte ngaphezulu kweminyaka emi-4 kwikholamu yakhe uMarque de Mar wesongezo seXL Semanal.

Ukuba awuzange ufunde ikholamu yakhe yeveki, ndithetha oku:

Icala elibi yayikukuba uSagunto, ikoloni yaseGrisi yangaphambili, wayekwangumbutho wamaRoma: ezinye ii-turkeys ezazithi ngelo xesha-inkulungwane yesithathu ye-BC, zithathele ingqalelo-zaziqala ukwenza ii-cockerels kwiMeditera. Kunjalo. Intaka ephawulekayo yabandakanyeka, kunye nemfazwe kunye nokunye.

Ndiyithandile kakhulu, andinanto ininzi yokwenza izimvo ngayo, shiya nje amanqaku endiwathathe kubalinganiswa nakwiincwadi ezikhankanyiweyo.

Imbali yaseSpain ibhaliwe ngenkangeleko efanayo endibhala ngayo iinoveli kunye namanqaku; Khange ndiyikhethe, kodwa sisiphumo sazo zonke ezo zinto: umbono, u-acidic rhoqo kunoshukela, womntu othi, njengomlinganiswa kwenye yeenoveli zam, uyazi ukuba ukuba lucid eSpain kuhlala kuzisa Ubukrakra, isizungu kunye nokuphelelwa lithemba okuninzi.

UArturo Pérez-Reverte

Yonwabele!

Amanani embali ahambelana nembali yaseSpain athi u-Arturo Pérez-Reverte athethe kakuhle ngayo

Abalinganiswa be-lso abathetha kakuhle uArturo Pérez-Reverte kwincwadi yakhe ethi A history of Spain

Ndiqhelene nemijukujelwa ethunyelwa ngumbhali ezincwadini zakhe nakwiikholamu, benditsalela ingqalelo kubantu abancomayo okanye athetha kakuhle ngabo. Ke ndishiya umdibaniso.

Andiyibeki ifomathi yesicatshulwa kuba xa kuninzi kakhulu kunzima, kodwa yonke into elandelayo malunga namanani embali ahlukeneyo licatshulwa elithathwe encwadini

UEmir Abderramán I

U-emir omncinci wasishiya sikrelekrele kwaye sinenkcubeko (amaxesha ngamaxesha, nangona kuncinci, kuyenzeka kuthi) kwaye washiya iSpain yamaSilamsi intsha, inamandla, ichuma kwaye ichachi. Uququzelele umatshini wokuqala werhafu osebenzayo ngelo xesha kwaye wakhuthaza oko kubizwa ngokuba luhambo lolwazi.

UAlfonso X

Unyana wakhe u-Alfonso X wayengomnye wabo kumkani ngelishwa abangahlali rhoqo kwimbali yethu: efundisiwe, ekhanyiselwe, nangona ejongene nenye imfazwe yamakhaya ... ebenexesha lokuyila, okanye ukuyalela ukuba ayenze, imisebenzi emithathu esisiseko: Imbali Jikelele yaseSpain (jonga igama, ngoku bathi iSpain yinto yeentsuku ezimbini ezidlulileyo), iiCantigas kunye neKhowudi yeMidlalo esixhenxe.

I-El Cid (iSidi)

Kwaye okokugqibela, malunga neebhloko ezingamashumi amahlanu, kwiintsuku ezintlanu ngaphambi kokuba kuthinjwe iJerusalem ngamajoni omnqamlezo, esoyikwa kwaye ehlonitshwa ngamaMoor namaKrestu, elona gorha loyikekayo elalisaziwa nguSpain lasweleka eValencia ukufa kwendalo.

Jaime mna

Olo sapho lwalunethamsanqa ngokwaneleyo ukuba luzale umfana ongaqhelekanga: igama lakhe lalinguJaime kwaye wangena kwimbali nesiteketiso soMoyisi ... kodwa ngenxa yokuba ebuphindaphinde kathathu ubukumkani bakhe. Indoda efundileyo, mbali kunye nembongi.

Ookumkani bamaKatolika

Babebancinci, bebahle, kwaye behlakaniphile. Ndibhekisa kuIsabel de Castilla noFernando de Aragón, ababizwa ngokuba ziiKumkani zamaKatolika. Ngaphezulu kwako konke, setha.

Kumashumi ambalwa eminyaka, yayiza kugqibela ngokubeka iSpain njengamandla akhokelayo kwihlabathi, ngenxa yemeko ezahlukeneyo ezihambelana nesithuba kunye nexesha: ubukrelekrele, isibindi, ubugwenxa, ukuzimisela kunye nethamsanqa.

UCarlos I waseSpain kunye no-V waseJamani

Unyana ababenaye, nangona kunjalo, baphuma behlakaniphile, besebenza kunye namaqanda ambalwa. Igama lakhe yayinguCarlos. Wayebomvu ngombala obomvu, efundiswe kakuhle eFlanders, kwaye wazuza njengelifa itrone yaseSpain, kwelinye icala, nakulawo woBukhosi baseJamani kwelinye; yayinguCarlos I waseSpain kunye no-V waseJamani.

UFilipu II

... oyena mntu ukhaliphileyo kwaye unomdla ohlala kwitrone yaseSpain ...

UFelipe II wafumanisa ukuba uligosa elilungileyo, elinobuchule kumaphepha, kwaye ubuqu bakhe ubu-turkey eneempawu ezininzi ezintle: i-meapila kodwa ikhulile, ishushu kwaye ingumhlobo omncinci wobunewunewu bobuqu.

Bala-iNkosana yeeOlivares

Wayengumphathiswa onezimvo kunye nobukrelekrele, nangona umsebenzi wokulawula loo putifer yayinkulu kuye, njengaye nawuphi na umntu. U-Olivares, othe nangona wayeneenkani kwaye ezikhukhumalisile wayengumalume okrelekrele nokhutheleyo, esebenza nzima njengokuba bambalwa ababonayo, wayefuna ukuqala ishishini, ahlaziye iSpain kwaye ayenze imeko yanamhlanje ngendlela eyayingayo ngelo xesha.

IMarquis yaseLa Ensenada

… Kuvele into engaqhelekanga: inkcubeko, ubuchule, umfuziselo osebenzayo womphathiswa obalaseleyo, ogcina unxibelelwano nezona zenzululwazi zibalaseleyo zaseYurophu kunye nezithandi zobulumko, wakhuthaza ezolimo kuzwelonke, wavula imijelo yokunkcenkceshela, ukuhambisa ezothutho kunye nonxibelelwano, wabuyisela iRoyal Navy kwaye ikhusela yonke into enento yokwenza nezobugcisa nenzululwazi. omnye wabalinganiswa abakhulu, ngokufutshane, abo iSpain neSpanish banetyala elikhulu kwaye, ewe, ukuze bahambisane nesiko, akukho mfundi wesikolo waseSpain olaziyo igama namhlanje.

UCharles II

Wayeyinkosi ekhanyiselweyo eyayifuna ukuzingqonga nabantu abanobuchule. Ukuba kwilayibrari yamaphephandaba sijongana ne IGazethi yaseMadrid ehambelana nexesha layo, siyakushiyeka i-sweet potato, sincoma isixa semithetho enobulungisa kunye nefanelekileyo apho iBourbon ehloniphekileyo izama ukuvula iifestile kunye nomoya wevumba lokuvalwa kunye ne-sacristy ethe yanqabisa le ndawo. Kwakukho inkxaso yophando kunye nesayensi, ukuphindaphinda kwabantu abavela kwimimandla elahliweyo, kunye nemithetho esebenzayo eyenza ubulungisa kwabasweleyo, yaphula ukungahambi kwemibutho yamaxesha aphakathi kunye neenkampani, yavumela abantwana ukuba baphile kwimisebenzi ebekekileyo, kwaye bavulele abantu basetyhini. besebenzisa urhwebo olwalungavunyelwe kubo de kube lelo xesha.

ICanovas del Castillo

… Kodwa isiqwenga sezopolitiko esibizwa ngokuba yiCánovas del Castillo - ngokungathandabuzekiyo esona sasinobuqili nesinamava ngexesha lakhe - saqinisekisa abanye saphela sise wonke umntu egadini.

ISagasta (kunye neCánovas kwakhona)

Okwangoku, inyani eqinisekileyo kufuneka ibalaselisiwe: entlokweni yamaqela amabini aphambili, anesisindo esikhulu, babezopolitiko ababini abanobukhulu obungaqhelekanga kunye nobukrelekrele, kubandakanya uPedro Sánchez, uMariano Rajoy, uJosé Luis Rodríguez Zapatero noJosé María Aznar , Ukubiza nje oomongameli abane ukusukela ngoku, ngekhe babenakho ukuthwala ingqayi. ICánovas kunye neSagasta, inkokeli yokuqala yeqela elilondolozayo kunye neyesibini yenkululeko okanye eqhubela phambili, ...

UAdolfo Suarez

U-Adolfo Suárez, oselula, ilungu eliqaqambileyo elinomdla - wayevela e-Avila-owayenxibe ihempe eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kwaye evela kwi-Movement, wayephethe uququzelelo loku. Kwaye wayenza ngokumangalisayo, ehambisa icuba, ephulula umqolo kwaye ejonga abasebenzi emehlweni (wayemkhulu phakathi kwama-greats, phakathi kwesiqingatha somoya kunye ne-trilero evela eLavapiés, kwaye eyinzwakazi).

Ukuthatha ithuba lomxholo wembali, ndikushiya a Ukubuyiselwa kwekhava yencwadi ISpain injalo, Isetyenziswe esikolweni ngexesha lolawulo lukaFranco.

Amanqaku

Zininzi iivesi ezinomdla, amabali, amadabi, abalinganiswa kunye namaxesha.

Ndiyayithanda intshayelelo ecaphula kubabhali abohlukeneyo baseSpain naseSpanish.

Umona waseSpain ayikokufumana imoto efana neyommelwane wakhe, kodwa kukuqinisekisa ukuba ummelwane akanayo imoto

UJulio Camba

Kwaye ndibhala ezi zihloko nzulu kwaye ndizikhumbule.

Iialmogávares

Yayingumkhosi wamajoni, amaCatalan, iAragonese, iNavarrese, iValencians kunye neMajorcans ubukhulu becala, abomeleleyo emfazweni, nabanike utshaba irhashalala. IAragó, Aragó y Vuka, isinyithi: vuka, isinyithi.

Kwaye bahamba, oomalume abangamawaka amathandathu anamakhulu mahlanu kunye nabafazi babo nabantwana, ababhaduli abakhohlakeleyo ngaphandle komhlaba kunye nekrele. Ukuba ibingadweliswanga kwiincwadi zembali, ibiya kuba yinto engakholelekiyo: ukubulala njengamarhengqa, kwakamsinya nje ukuba bawele, balwa iimfazwe ezintathu ezilandelanayo ngokuchasene nama-Turks angamawaka angamashumi amahlanu, bewaxhela emva koxheli.

ECatalonia

Ngokubhekisele kwiCatalonia, eyayisandula ukubusa ngookumkani abangabamelwane baseFrank, yayisanda nabalawuli ababizwa ngokuba yiBarcelona. Abokuqala kubo ukuba bazimele geqe kwi-gabachos yayinguWifredo, ngegama lesidlaliso elithi Pilós okanye uVelloso, othe ukongeza ekubeni noboya kufuneka ukuba wayethanda ukuhleka, kuba wayegcwalise indawo ngeemonki ezintle. Abanye ababhali bembali yomkhombe ngoku babonisa u-Wifredo olungileyo njengokumkani wokuqala wobukumkani obuthethwayo base-Atalan, kodwa ungabavumeli batye ingqayi. Amakhosi aseCatalonia anelo gama awazange abekho. Hayi ukuhlekisa. Ookumkani babehlala bevela e-Aragon kwaye le nto yadityaniswa kamva, njengoko siza kuthi xakufika ixesha Okwangoku babebala isiCatalan, ukuba nembeko enkulu.

Kwigazi nasemlilweni

Phakathi kwaba yayingoyena mbhali wethu owayesisityebi ngelo xesha, intatheli uManuel Chaves Nogales, osandulela incwadi ethi Igazi nomlilo (1937) kufanele ukuba ibe sisifundo esinyanzelekileyo namhlanje kuzo zonke izikolo zaseSpain:

Idiots kunye nababulali baye baveliswa kwaye basebenza ngobuninzi obufanayo kunye nokuqina kumacala amabini ahlukanise iSpain […] Ekuzileni kwam, igazi elaphalazwa yimigulukudu yababulali ababesenza ubugwenxa obomvu eMadrid lwalunzima njengegazi ukuba iinqwelomoya zathululela uFranco, ebulala abafazi nabantwana abamsulwa. Kwaye ndandisoyika kakhulu okanye ndisoyika inkohlakalo yamaMoor, abaphangi bakaTercio kunye nababulali baseFalange, kunabantu abangakwaziyo ukufunda nokubhala okanye amakhomanisi […] Iziphumo zokugqibela zalo mzabalazo azindikhathazi kakhulu. Andinamdla kakhulu kukwazi ukuba uzwilakhe wexesha elizayo waseSpain uzakuvela kwelinye icala okanye kwelinye lamanqwanqwa […] Iyakuxabisa iSpain ngaphezulu kwesiqingatha sesigidi sokufa. Ngaba ngexabiso eliphantsi

Kwigazi nasemlilweni. UManuel Chaves Nogales

Iincwadi

Iincwadi ezinomdla esele zikhankanyiwe kumanqaku ahlukeneyo.

  • Magnet Ngu-Ramón J. Sender
  • Indlela yomvukeli NguArturo Barea
  • Kwigazi nasemlilweni NguManuel Caves Nogales
  • Isithoba nguEvelyn Mesquida
  • Isangqa saseIberia nguValle-Inclán
  • Iziqendu zesizwe nguGaldós

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