Ubuzwilakhe bonxibelelwano ngu-Ignacio Ramonet

Ukuphononongwa kobuzwilakhe kunxibelelwano ngu-Ignacio Ramonet

Kwakudala ndafunda Siyithengisa njani ibhayisekile incwadi ethi UIgnacio Ramonet wabhala kunye noNoam Chomsky kwaye ukusukela ngoko ndanomdla. Ukusuka eChomsky ndiye ndaqhubeka nokufunda imisebenzi yakhe emininzi kodwa ukusuka kuRamonet bendingekayenzi kude kube ngoku. Kwaye iya ngqo kwicandelo lethu iincwadi.

Ubuzwilakhe bezonxibelelwano sisincoko ekusebenzeni kweendaba zosasazo kuluntu lwethu. Ukugxila kwindima kamabonwakude.

Ubuzwilakhe bonxibelelwano

Isincoko sendlela osasazo asebenza ngayo kunye nendima ayidlalayo kwihlabathi.

Ngaphandle kokubhalwa kwiminyaka engama-20 eyadlulayo, sibona ubunyani bayo yonke into ebalwayo kwimithombo yeendaba yangoku. Makukhankanywe ngokukodwa uhlalutyo lukamabonwakude kwaye ngakumbi iindaba. Ivula amehlo akho ekusebenzeni kwayo.

Ndishiyeke ndinomnqweno wokubona olu hlalutyo kodwa kwixesha langoku kuthathelwa ingqalelo ukubaluleka kwe-Intanethi, uthungelwano lwasentlalweni, njl. Njl. Kwaye iminyaka eyi-20 eyadlulayo ibingabalulekanga.

Ukufunda uRamonet kundenza ndifune ukufunda incwadi yakhe yamva nje Ubukhosi bokujonga kunye nokubhalisela i-Le monde diplomatique apho wayengumlawuli iminyaka emininzi

Ndihamba ngezona zimvo zibalulekileyo okanye ezo zinomdla kakhulu kwincwadi. Qaphela ukuba andifuni ukulibala.

Izimvo kunye neengxoxo ekufuneka uzikhumbule kwaye ucamngce ngazo

Okokuqala, kwanolu luvo lolwazi. Kude kube kutshanje, ukwazisa, ngandlela thile, bekungaboneleli kuphela ngokuchanekileyo- kwaye kungqinisisiwe- inkcazo yenyani, isiganeko, kodwa ikwabonelela ngeseti yeeparameter zomxholo ezinokuvumela umfundi ukuba aqonde intsingiselo enzulu. Yayikukuphendula imibuzo esisiseko: ngubani owenze ntoni? Ngeendlela, phi, ngoba kutheni, kwaye zithini iziphumo?

Kwaye ke inkohliso ekhohlisayo yokuba ukubona kukusekwa, kancinci kancinci, kwaye nokuba nawuphi na umsitho, nokuba ungabonakala njani, kufuneka ube nenxalenye ebonakalayo, eboniswayo, nenomabonakude.

Ixesha lolwazi litshintshile. Ukulungiswa kwemithombo yeendaba kungoku nje (ixesha lokwenyani), ngqo, ukuba ngumabonwakude kunye nonomathotholo kuphela abanokubonelela. … Imithombo yeendaba ebhaliweyo iyakwamkela ukunyanzeliswa kokuthetha hayi nabemi kodwa nababukeli

ubunyani bolwazi. Namhlanje inyani ayiyonyani kuba iyahambelana neekhrayitheriya zenjongo, engqongqo kwaye iqinisekisiwe kwimithombo yolwazi, kodwa kungenxa yokuba eminye imithombo yeendaba iphinda ingxelo efanayo kwaye "iyangqina" ...

Kuzo zonke ezi nguqu kufuneka songeze ukungaqondani okusisiseko ... Abemi abaninzi bakuthathela ingqalelo oko, kufakwe kakuhle esofeni kwigumbi labo lokuhlala, bebukele umsitho wovalo lweziganeko ezisekwe kwimifanekiso eyomeleleyo, enobundlobongela kunye nomtsalane kwiscreen esincinci, banako bazazise. Impazamo enkulu. Ngenxa yezizathu ezithathu: eyokuqala, ngenxa yokuba ubuntatheli bukamabonakude, obakhiwe njengentsomi, abwenzelwanga ukwazisa, hayi ukuphazamisa; Okwesibini, kuba ukulandelelana ngokukhawuleza kweendaba ezimfutshane neziqhekekileyo (malunga namashumi amabini kwindaba nganye) kuvelisa isiphumo esibi esibi solwazi kunye nengcaciso engeyiyo; Okokugqibela, kuba ukufuna ukufumanisa ngaphandle komzamo yinkohliso ehambelana ngakumbi neentsomi zentengiso kunokuba kunjalo ngokugaya uluntu. Kuxabisa ulwazi ukwaziswa kwaye kungelo xabiso ummi afumana ilungelo lokuthatha inxaxheba ngokuqiqayo kubomi bolawulo lwentando yesininzi.

Oko kukuthi, ukunyanzelwa akusebenzi namhlanje ngokucinezela, ukunqumla, ukuthintela, ukusika. Isebenza ngokuchaseneyo: isebenza kakhulu, ngokuqokelela, ngokufuthaniseleka. Ulufihla njani ulwazi namhlanje? Ngegalelo elikhulu lale: ulwazi lufihliwe kuba kuninzi kakhulu onokukusebenzisa kwaye, ke, ulwazi olulahlekileyo aluqondwa.

Ngekhamera, isixhobo esinefoto okanye ingxelo, onke amajelo eendaba (cinezela, unomathotholo, umabonwakude) azame ukubeka ummi ngqo kunxibelelwano nomsitho

Yintoni eyinyani nobuxoki? Inkqubo apho savela khona isebenza ngale ndlela ilandelayo: ukuba onke amajelo eendaba athi into iyinyani, iyinyani. Ukuba abeendaba, unomathotholo okanye umabonwakude bathi into iyinyani, iyinyani nokuba ibubuxoki.

Malunga neendaba

Iindaba zeendaba zifumana ukubaluleka okukodwa encwadini. Kungenxa yokuba yeyona ndlela iphambili yokuxela iindaba kwezona ndaba zibalulekileyo, umabonwakude.

URamonet usixelela ngobume beendaba esizibonayo namhlanje. Baye bavela njani kunye nefomathi yayo ebhalwe eHollywood, ngokungathi sisicatshulwa somdlalo bhanyabhanya. Ukuphela ngesiphelo esonwabisayo okanye isiphelo esimnandi.

Akukho nzima ngoku ukuza kwisigqibo sokuba umntu akanakukwaziswa ngokukodwa ngeendaba. Iindaba azenzelwanga ukwazisa, zenzelwe ukuphazamisa. Yenziwe njengentsomi. Yintsomi yaseHollywood. Iqala ngendlela ethile, iphele kwisiphelo esonwabisayo. Awunakho ukubeka isiphelo ekuqaleni. Ngelixa iphepha-ndaba elibhaliweyo lingaqala ukufundwa ekugqibeleni. Ekupheleni kweendaba, umntu sele elibele ukuba kwenzeka ntoni ekuqaleni. Kwaye ihlala iphela ngokuhleka, kunye neepirouettes.

Indima yeendaba

Njengakwezi bhanyabhanya, sizama ukuba singapheli kwinqaku elibi okanye elibi kakhulu (abaphulaphuli baya kuba lusizi). Imithetho yesiphelo esonwabisayo (isiphelo esonwabisayo) ifuna ukuphela kwinqaku elinethemba, i-anecdote ehlekisayo. Kuba umsebenzi wosasazo unento yokwenza nonyango lwengqondo kwezentlalo, kufuneka, ngaphezu kwako konke, ukubethelela ithemba, ukuqinisa amandla abalawuli belizwe, ukukhuthaza ukuzithemba, ukuvusa ukuvumelana, ukufaka isandla kuxolo lwentlalo.

Ulwazi lwamahlwempu

Ukudiliza uMntu. Oku ukuba iindaba lulwazi lwamahlwempu kundithandile.

Ukuthembeka kolwazi oluboniswe kumabonakude kuphezulu ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokuba intlalo-qoqosho kunye nenkcubeko yababukeli iphantsi. Olona luntu luthobekileyo kunene aluzisebenzisi ezinye iindlela zonxibelelwano kwaye kunqabile ukuba lufunde amaphephandaba; Kungenxa yoko le nto bengenakubuza, ukuba kukho imfuneko, ngohlobo lweziganeko eziphakanyiswe ngumabonakude. Iindaba zisasaza ulwazi lwamahlwempu. Kukulo ukubaluleka kwezopolitiko. Isebenza ngokulula ngakumbi kwabo banenkcubeko encinci yokuzikhusela.

Ixhoba, umsindisi kunye nesidima.

Ezindabeni, imithetho yeqonga yenza ukukhohlisa komboniso ophilayo kwaye, ke ngoko, yinyaniso. Nje ukuba isiganeko senzeke, sele siyazi ukuba umabonwakude uza kusixelela ntoni ngayo, ngokutsho kweyiphi imigangatho, zeziphi iikhrayitheriya zefilimu.

Iitekhnoloji ezintsha ziya kuba negalelo ekuphuculeni idemokhrasi ukuba siyalwa, kwasekuqaleni, ngokuchasene nomfanekiso-ngqondweni woluntu lwehlabathi esizilungiselelwe ngamazwe ngamazwe, aphoswa kwingcwaba elivulekileyo kulwakhiwo lweendlela zolwazi.

Imithombo yeendaba kwiimfazwe

Elinye lamacandelo anomdla yimbali yeendaba kwiimfazwe. Andizibeki zonke izimvo kodwa kukho ezona zinto zibalulekileyo.

UMexico ngo-1911, i-cinema isebenza

Kwangokunjalo, iMvukelo yaseMexico (1911-1920) yahlanganisa imithombo yeendaba, intatheli ezivela kwihlabathi liphela, abafoti kunye, okokuqala ngqa, nomdwebi wesinema. Uqhushululu lwaseMexico yimfazwe yokuqala eqanjiweyo bukhoma.

Imfazwe yokuqala yehlabathi (1914-1918)

Kufuneka kukhunjulwe ukuba yimfazwe yokuqala apho onke amajoni afunda khona, efunda, ebhala kwaye ebala. Imfundo yamabanga aphantsi yayinyanzelekile kuwo onke amazwe aseYurophu kwinxalenye yesithathu yokugqibela yenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Isikolo, kunye nokufundwa kwembali yesizwe, kubenze baba ngabazithandayo, babenza uninzi lwabo belukholisile ubuzwe.

Utshintsho olutsha

Ngethuba lokuqala, oorhulumente bacinga ukuba imeko yemfazwe ibagunyazisa ukuba balawule imithombo yeendaba kwaye, umzekelo, benza amaqela amagosa olwazi akhethekileyo, kuphela kwabo bavunyiweyo ukuba banxibelelane neentatheli. Imithombo yeendaba ayinalo ithuba lokunika ingxelo ngokufanelekileyo kwaye, phakathi kwezinye izithintelo, intatheli azinakungena emiseleni kude kube sekupheleni kwe-1917.

I-propaganda ephambili ijolise kuluntu uqobo, ukuze yazi ukulunga komlo kunye nobubi bomchasi. Ubudlelwane boluntu noluntu benziwe buqine kangangokuba kunzima ukuba nenqobo yokuchasana okanye intshabalalo kungenelelo.

Njengoko u-Admiral Antoine Sanguinetti esitsho: "Iimfazwe zinobundlobongela kakhulu kubahlali ukuba bacinge"

Ingxabano yokuqala, esele ijongiwe nombono omtsha, yeyaseFalkland Islands kwi1982 kwaye ukusukela ngoko zonke iingxwabangxwaba ziphathwa ngendlela efanayo. Zizifundo zemfazwe yaseVietnam

Izifundo ezivela kwiMfazwe yaseVietnam

Isifundo sokuqala kukuba kwimpikiswano indima elungileyo- kumajelo eendaba- lelo lexhoba. Enye yeenjongo zokuqala iya kuthi ke ibonakale njengexhoba. Yenza umfanekiso wobundlongondlongo kakhulu, ongalunganga, nowoyikisayo kakhulu kumchasi.

Isifundo sesibini kukuba imfazwe iyingozi kwaye iintatheli zisengozini ukuba ziza ngaphambili. Kuyimfuneko ke ngoko ukubakhusela, ukubathintela ukuba bangasondeli kwezi ndawo, singavumeli abantu ukuba babe lingqina elipheleleyo lokulwa, ngenxa yokuba iimfazwe zinzima kakhulu ukuba uluvo loluntu lubazi ngokuthe ngqo.

Singena kwindalo iphela apho umbono wokuba iimfazwe zicacile ushiywe. Ukusukela eVietnam, kwiimfazwe yinguqulelo ekufuneka inikezelwe kungquzulwano efotwayo, le "umphathiswa wemfazwe" wegunya elingqinelanayo afuna ukuyazisa.

IGranada ngo-1983, iPanama ngo-1989 kwaye ngakumbi iMfazwe yase-Gulf. Kakhulu kangangokuba kukho isikhokelo esisemthethweni sawo onke amazwe akwi-NATO ayilwe ngo-1986 yiAtlantic Alliance ngendlela yokuziphatha namajelo eendaba xa kukho ukungqubana.

kwezosasazo olona lwazi aluyiyo eyenzekileyo kodwa indlela asixelela ngayo umhambisi.

Ukujongana nolwazi oluqhubekayo nanamhlanje kude kube yiparoxysm ingcinga yokurhanela kunye nokubukeka, ummi uqala ukuqonda ubungozi obumenza ukuba abaleke ukushiya kunye nokuthanda kwakhe. Fumanisa ukuba kubiza ulwazi. Kwaye lelo lixabiso lentando yesininzi.

Kukho amajelo eendaba ama-2 endifuna ukurhuma kuwo

Ndicebisa incwadi kwakhona Ubuzwilakhe bonxibelelwano Ngu-Ignacio Ramonet othi, nangona emdala, asifundise kwaye asivule amehlo kwindlela umhlaba osebenza ngayo.

Izimvo ezi-2 ku "Ubuzwilakhe bezonxibelelwano ngu-Ignacio Ramonet"

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