Ukusika iPlasma

Umatshini wokusika iplasma

Umsiki wePlasma

Omnye umsiki weplasma Ngumatshini okanye isixhobo esikwaziyo ukusika iinxalenye zesinyithi kuzo zonke iintlobo kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu anokufikelela ngaphezulu kwe-20.000ºC. Izitshixo zokusika ngokulula isinyithi, nditsho ubukhulu obukhulu, ngale nkqubo kukuba amaqondo obushushu aphezulu kakhulu, iipropathi zeplasma (imeko apho igesi iziswa yi-arc yombane), kunye nokwahlulahlula.

Kwimeko yeplasma, loo gesi iqhuba yombane oza kutsalwa ngombane. Ukuba idluliswe ngemilomo yetotshi entle kakhulu, inokujoliswa ngqo ngqo apho ufuna ukusika khona. Ngamanye amagama, enkosi kubushushu obuphezulu (obuveliswe yi-arc yombane yangoku ethe ngqo) kwaye ngokugxininisa amandla e-kinetic ale gesi, inokusikwa ngokulula ngokuchaneka okukhulu.

umsiki weplasma

Qaphela ukuba kukho ii-electrode ezisebenzisa i Ukwahlulahlulahlula phakathi kwetotshi okanye itotshi nenxalenye eza kusikwa. Njengoko zingqamene neepali, iiathom zegesi zisetyenziswa njenge "projectile" kwicala elinye ngokuchasene nomphezulu wesinyithi, ukulawula ukudlula kuyo. Into elungileyo kukuba nayiphi na irhasi ingasetyenziswa, nangona kuyinyani ukuba ayifanelanga ukuba yirhasi esebenzayo kunye nohlobo lwesinyithi esisikiweyo ...

Ukongeza kwi ukwazi ukukhetha nayiphi na irhasi, Olunye uncedo kukuba imiphetho esikiweyo ayizukufuna unyango olulandelayo ukulungisa ukungafezeki okwenziwe ngexesha lokusika, kwaye akukho bungozi bokuba iqhekeza liza kukhubazeka bubushushu xa ligxila kwindawo ethile (ngokungafaniyo iioxyfuel, Etshisa indawo enkulu).

Yintoni iplasma

yintoni iplasma, isayensi

Iplasma yimeko yesine ulungelelwaniso Kwimiba, ukusukela ngaphaya kwemeko ezisisiseko zemicimbi (eqinileyo, engamanzi kunye negesi), zininzi ngakumbi. Ngapha koko, kunqabile ukuba kungaziwa njengezi zintathu zithandwayo, kuba lelona lizwe lininzi kwindalo yonke.

Ukuba uyayikhumbula into endiyithethileyo kwicandelo elidlulileyo malunga nokwahlulahlula i-jet yeplasma, kuyavakala xa usazi ukuba iplasma yimeko efana negesi, kodwa apho amasuntswana akhoyo Ukuhlawulwa ngombane (zii-ion), kwaye zisebenzisa iipali zinokuba ziijets yeeathom / iimolekyuli naphi na apho ufuna khona, ngokufanayo nendlela ii-elektronon ezihamba ngayo ngomqhubi. Mhlawumbi ngale ndlela uya kuyiqonda ngcono inkqubo yokusika ...

Ukwenza ionize, okanye tshintsha igesi ibe yiplasma, Kuya kufuneka uyifudumeze irhasi okanye usebenzise amasimi amandla abukhali usebenzisa i-laser okanye i-microwave generator. Kwimeko yokusikwa kweplasma, into esetyenziswayo ngumbane wombane ukuyifudumeza, yiyo loo nto irhasi yeionis iguqulwa ibe yiplasma.

Phambi kokuba ndiqhubeke, ndingathanda ukucacisa ukuba a Umbane wombane yinto esiyibonayo kwindalo, njengombane. Kodwa uya kuyibona nakwezinye izixhobo ezifana neebhola zeplasma, okanye ukuba ubuchwephesha uyayazi into eyenzekayo kwi-capacitor xa kuphuka i-dielectric ... Umahluko onokubakho uphakama kakhulu kwaye, nangona bengaqhakamshelani kwaye bohlulwe ngumoya (i-insulator elungileyo kakhulu), umoya uphela "uqhekeka", uvelisa umqadi ohamba usuka kwenye i-electrode uye kwenye. Kwenzeka into efanayo kwizaqhwithi phakathi kwamafu ahlaselwe kakubi kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo emhlabeni. Nangona amafu nomhlaba zahlulwe ngothotho olukhulu lomoya ogqumayo, umbane utsibela ukusuka kwenye indawo ukuya kwenye ...

Oko kwathethi, usenokuba uyazibuza yintoni ionEwe inokuba yi-athomu okanye imolekyuli yayo nayiphi na into okanye ikhompawundi etshintshwe inani lee-elekhtrons. Khumbula ukuba ii-atom okanye iimolekyuli zihlala zikwimeko yombane yokulingana, kunye nenani elifanayo le-positive (proton) kunye ne-negative (electron) yeentlawulo, ukongeza kwi-neutron (neutron).

Ukuchazwa kweplasma, ii-anion, ii-cations kunye neerhafu zombane

Ke, ukuba i-athomu okanye imolekyuli iye yonyanzeliswa kwaye inegalelo elingaphezulu Iifowuni Xa kuthelekiswa nokuma kwayo okuzinzileyo, iya kuba yinto ye-anion. Ngelixa ilahlekile ii-elektroni kwaye intlawuliso yayo iyongamele, iya kuba yication. Irhasi eyenziwe zezi anion / cations iyakuba yile plasma sithetha ngayo ...

Kwaye into endifuna ukuhamba nayo kukuba ikwi-equilibrium (igesi eqhelekileyo), ke, ngokufaka intlawulo engathandekiyo okanye elungileyo ngokusebenzisa ii-electrode ezimbini (enye itotshi -, kunye nenye kwisiqwenga esiza kunqunyulwa +), ezo ii-atom / iimolekyuli aziyi kwenza nto. Kodwa ekubeni umthwalo Ndiyabulela kule arc ebenza ionize, i-electrode engeyiyo inokutsala i-cations kwaye igxothe ii-anion, kwaye ngokuchaseneyo ne-electrode elungileyo. Oko kukuthi, banokujoliswa, kule meko nxamnye nomphezulu wesinyithi ukuze bafana ne-projectiles, kwaye kula maqondo obushushu, usike ngokungathi yibhotolo ...

Ngendlela, sukuphambanisa ukungalingani kwe-ion kunye ne-radioactivity, kuba kwimeko apho kuxa i-athomu ingazinzanga ngenxa yokungalingani phakathi kweeproton okanye ii-neutron zenyukliya (ii-elektroni zikuluqweqwe olujikeleza i-nucleus, kwaye zezona zichaphazelekayo kwinkqubo ye-ionization). Kwimeko ye-radioactivity, xa kukho ukungalingani phakathi kwezi proton kunye nee-neutron, i-athomu iya kungazinzi kwaye iya kufuna ukukhupha ii-neutron okanye iiproton ezingaphezulu ukufikelela kulungelelwaniso.

Oko kuphuma ukuzama ukubuyisela ibhalansi yimitha, enje ngamasuntswana e-alpha (helium), amasuntswana e-beta (ii-elektroni okanye ii-positron) kunye nemitha ye-gamma (amandla aphezulu e-photon). Mhlawumbi kunokukhokelela kudideko kuba le gamma electromagnetic wave ithathwa njengemitha ionizing, njengeX-reyi, i-UV, okanye ii-lasers. Ke ngoko, inokusetyenziselwa ukuvelisa ion ngokunjalo.

Iiplasma

IPlasma inayo iipropathi ezinomdla kakhulu, ezinye zazo zibalulekile ekusikeni kweplasma ukuze isebenze. Njengokuba:

  • Uye amasuntswana ityala (ii). Ngenxa yoko baphendula kumbane wangaphandle ombane, owe-magnetic kunye nowe-electromagnetic fields.
  • Ndiyakwazi ukuqhuba umbane bhetele kunegesi.
  • Ukuba yenziwe ngamasuntswana kwimeko enesidima kwaye inamandla amakhulu, iplasma ivelisa eyayo imitha yombane.
  • Kuxhomekeka kubushushu kunye nokuxinana kwe-elektron iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zeplasma. Umzekelo, kukho iiplasmas ezihlawuliswe ngomqondiso omnye okanye omnye, njengoko ubonile ngaphambili. Kwaye uya kufumana oko bakubiza ngokuba yiplasma ebandayo kunye neplasma eshushu:
    • Kwimeko iplasma ebandayo ine-electron density ephantsi, kwaye amaqondo obushushu ayo ayabanda (ngesiqhelo igumbi lokushisa). Umzekelo, leyo isetyenziswe kwimibhobho ye-fluorescent kunye neon ukuyibonisa irhasi ngaphakathi kwaye iqhuba kwaye ivelise ukukhanya xa kudlula ngoku.
    • El pasma eshushu, yenziwa xa igesi ishushu de i-elektronon zibe namandla aneleyo okuzikhulula kwii-athomu, ngezinga eliphezulu le-electron density. Yiyo le into eyenzekayo kwiLanga, leyo isetyenziswa zizazinzulu ezithile, okanye kwimeko yokusika iplasma. Ngokubanzi, leyo ionized ngezantsi kwe-1% iya kuhlala ibizwa ngokuba yiplasma eshushu kwaye ukuba iphantse yagqitywa ionized iya kushushu.

Njengoko ubona, zizimpawu ezizodwa ezivumela usetyenziso lweemveliso ezahlukeneyo, ezinje ngokusika.

Iindidi

iintlobo zokusika iplasma

Ngaphakathi kokusika iplasma sinako ukwahlula phakathi iintlobo ezahlukeneyo eyahlukileyo:

  • Ukusikwa kweplasma yesandlaUkusikwa kweplasma okwenziwa ngesandla, kunye neqela lokusika iplasma. Umqhubi uya kuba ophethe ukuphatha incam yokusika kunye nokusika into ayifunayo ngokuhambisa isandla sakhe ukuya ngqo kwijet yeplasma.
  • Ukusika iplasma ye-CNCNgokungafaniyo nenkqubo yemanyuwali, kukwakho neetafile okanye oomatshini be-CNC abenza ukusikwa ngokuzenzekelayo ngokuchaneka ngakumbi kunye nesantya, ukusika ngokuchanekileyo okanye amashishini apho intshukumo kufuneka iphindaphindwe khona kwiindawo ezininzi. Ngapha koko, i-CNC (uLawulo lwaManani weKhompyuter) yinkqubo apho ukusika kufuneka kwenziwe kulungiswe ngekhompyuter, kwaye umatshini okanye irobhothi iya kujonga ukusikwa okucwangcisiweyo.
  • Ukusika iPlasma ngomoya ocinezelweyo: Ngokungafaniyo neplasma eyomileyo yendabuko, ngo-1963 kwakunokwenzeka ukunyusa isantya ngama-25% ngenxa yeoksijini esemoyeni. Nangona kunjalo, le oksijini ishiya indawo yokusika i-oxidized ephezulu kwaye i-electrode yonakalisa ngokukhawuleza.
  • Inaliti yokusika iplasma: Kwiminyaka emihlanu emva kokusika umoya, umongameli weHypertherm uDick Couch wasungula olu hlobo lunye lokusikwa, olusebenzisa amanzi atofelweyo kwindawo yokusika ngombhobho okhethekileyo ngokurhabaxa. Oku kukhokelela kunqunyulwa ngokukhawuleza, okungcono kunye nentlenge encinci.
  • Ukusika iplasma ngenaliti yeoksijini: Yayiphuhliswa ngo-1983, kwaye endaweni ye-nitrogen oksijini irhasi isetyenziselwa ukusika kunye namanzi kwincam yombhobho. Oku kunceda ukunciphisa ukusika kwe-electrode kunye nokusika i-oxidation yomhlaba.
  • Ukuhamba kabini ukusika iplasma: yinkqubo eqhelekileyo okanye esemgangathweni. Sebenzisa i-nitrogen yeplasma yegesi kunye negesi yokukhusela efana ne-carbon dioxide okanye i-oksijini kwindawo yokusika. Ekunene embindini wokuphuma kwezi gesi zimbini kuya kuba yi-electrode. Kungenxa yoko le nto ibizwa ngokuba kukuhamba kabini.

Kwaye nangaphandle kokufuna ukwazi, jonga kwitekhnoloji ye ukunqunyulwa kwamanzi. Ngokuqinisekileyo inomdla kuwe.

Ukuba ungumntu ongaphumliyo njengathi kwaye ufuna ukusebenzisana ekugcinweni nasekuphuculweni kweprojekthi, unokwenza umnikelo. Yonke imali iya kuthenga iincwadi kunye nezixhobo zokuvavanya kunye nokwenza izifundo