Amandla enyukliya aya kusindisa umhlaba nguAlfredo García

Ikhava : Amandla enyukliya aya kusindisa umhlaba nguAlfredo García

Ukuphelisa iintsomi malunga namandla enyukliya nguAlfredo García @OperadorNyukliya

Yincwadi ecace kakhulu kwaye efundisayo apho uAlfredo García esibonisa khona inzululwazi kunye neziseko zobunjineli emva kwamandla enyukliya kunye nezixhobo zamandla enyukliya.

Kuyo yonke incwadi siza kufunda ukuba isebenza njani iradioactivity, iintlobo zemitha yokusasazeka kwemitha, iinxalenye kunye nokusebenza komatshini wamandla enyukliya kunye nemilinganiselo yokhuseleko kunye nemigaqo elandelwayo.

Ukongeza, uya kuchaza uqeqesho oluyimfuneko ukuze abe ngumqhubi wenyukliya kwaye uya kuhlalutya iingozi ezintathu zenyukliya ezinkulu ezithe zenzeka, ecalula oonobangela, ubuqhetseba obuxeliweyo kunye nokuba zingaphinda zenzeke namhlanje.

Le ncwadi lubhejo olwenziwe ngumbhali kumandla enyukliya njengamandla acocekileyo okusetyenziswa njengesiseko kunye nokuhambelana neminye imithombo yokuvelisa ngokutsha.

Iyunithi ye-radioactivity yi-becquerel ngembeko yefiziksi yaseFransi u-Henri Becquerel, umfumani we-radioactivity. I-becquerel enye (1 Bq) ilingana ne-atomic disintegration e-1 ngesekhondi.

Umonakalo kumzimba womntu ngumthamo wemitha ye-ionizing. idosi efanayo ibangela umonakalo owahlukileyo ngokuxhomekeke kuhlobo lwemitha. Ithamo lemitha lilinganiswa nge-sievert (Sv) eyiyunithi enkulu kakhulu, yiyo loo nto i-millisieverts kunye ne-microsieverts zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi.

iintlobo zemitha

  • Imitha yeBeta: Ii-elektroni okanye iipositroni ngokuqhekeka kweeprotoni kunye nenyutroni
  • Imitha ye-neutron: I-neutron yasimahla
  • Imitha yeGamma kunye neX-reyi: Amaza ombane (iifotoni) anamandla kakhulu
  • I-Alpha radiation: I-nuclei yee-athom ze-helium ezine-neutron ezi-2 kunye neeproton ezi-2.

Imiyalelo yoBukhulu

Ezi zezinye zeempawu ezixutyushwa kule ncwadi kwaye ziya kusinceda ukuba sibe nomyalelo wobukhulu xa sithetha ngeradiation kunye ne-radioactivity.

  • I-X-reyi yesandla ivelisa idosi ye-radioactive eyi-0,0001 mSv
  • Imitha efunyenwe ngabantu ngokwemvelaphi yendalo, 2,4 mSv unyaka. Yimvelaphi yendalo yeradioactive.
  • Izehlo zomhlaza ezingakumbi zifunyenwe ukusuka kwi-100 mSv/ngonyaka
  • Imitha yecosmic evela emajukujukwini yithamo ebalulekileyo yemitha ye-ionizing. idosi ephakathi yi-0,39 mSv ngonyaka
  • Imitha ye-ionizing yendalo ebalulekileyo yirhasi ye-radon (Rn-222) eSpain, umthamo ophakathi kwe-1,15 kunye ne-40 mSv/ngonyaka uqikelelwa ngokuxhomekeke kwindawo esihlala kuyo.
  • Ukutya kunika umyinge we-0,29 mSv / ngonyaka, kwaye ngoko i-potassium-40 inika i-0,17. Ukutya kwaselwandle kunoxinzelelo oluphezulu lwe-radioactivity kunye neebhanana.
  • Idosi engumndilili kumntu ngamnye okwinqanaba I lezempilo le-UNSCEAR yi-1,28 mSv/ngonyaka nge-X-reyi kunye namayeza enyukliya.

Amaziko kunye nezifinyezo

Imibutho kunye nezifinyezo ezibhekiselele kumandla enyukliya kunye nobuchwepheshe benyukliya

  • UNGAFIHLANGA: IKomiti yeNzululwazi yeZizwe eziManyeneyo kwiZiphumo zoHlangano lweAtom :
  • I-CSN (IBhunga loKhuseleko lweNyukliya): Liziko elilawulayo kwiziko lamandla enyukliya kunye neradioactive kunye nezibonelelo eSpain.
  • IAEA (I-Arhente yaMandla eAthom yeHlabathi)
  • NRC (iKhomishini yoLawulo lweNyukliya) yiMelika
  • OSART (Iqela loPhononongo loKhuseleko oluSebenzayo)
  • WNA (uMbutho weNyukliya weHlabathi)
  • WANO (uMbutho weHlabathi wabaSebenzi beNyukliya)
  • INPO (Iziko leNuclear Power Operator)
  • RNA (I-Inshurensi yoMngcipheko weNyukliya) Amaziko ombane eNyukliya afakwe kwi-inshorensi.
  • AGNES (I-International Scale of Nuclear Events): isuka ku-0 ukuya kwisi-7. Amanqanaba amathathu okuqala ukusuka ku-1 ukuya kwisi-3 ziziganeko kunye nokusuka kwisi-4 ukuya kwisi-7 seengozi.
  • I-ENRESA
  • Isicwangciso Jikelele seNkunkuma yeRadioactive
  • GIF (IQonga leHlabathi lesiZukulwana sesi-IV)

amaziko amandla enyukliya

Olona hlobo luxhaphake kakhulu lwesixhobo senyukliya yi-PWR, amanzi anoxinzelelo. Ineesekethe zamanzi ezi-3 zehydraulic. Eyokuqala ukupholisa ubushushu obuveliswa yi-reactor, eyesibini ukupholisa eprayimari kwaye ifumana umphunga wokuhambisa i-iturbine kunye nenqanaba eliphezulu elipholisa okwesibini ngamanzi omlambo okanye olwandle.

Isekethe ephambili i-radioactive, kodwa itywinwe, ayixubani neyesibini. I-fuel ye-reactor ngezinye iintonga, i-264 kwi-PWR Westinghouse reactors enomlinganiselo we-20 × 20 yeesentimitha kunye ne-4 m ukuphakama. Basebenza ngeeatmospheres ze-152 zoxinzelelo kunye namanzi angamanzi kwi-300ºC

Inqanaba lemfundo ephakamileyo litshintshisa ngamanzi kunye nokusingqongileyo. Akukho radioactivity, kodwa inyusa ubushushu bamanzi. Kukho umyinge wemihla ngemihla wokunyuka kwe-3ºC phakathi kwendawo yokungena amanzi kwisityalo kunye nokuphuma kwawo kwaloo manzi.

Iinqaba ezinkulu ozibonayo ziinqaba zokupholisa

bwr

Olona hlobo lwesibini luninzi kakhulu lwereactor yi-BWR abilayo amanzi abilayo. Umphunga wenziwa kwireactor enye kwaye uthathwa ngokuthe ngqo kwi-injini yomoya, yonke ngaphakathi kwesekethe yokuqala. Kukuphucuka kwinqanaba lokusebenza, kodwa bonke oomatshini bangaphakathi kwendawo ye-radioactive.

Iziko lamandla enyukliya alinakudubula njengebhombu yeathom. Ngenxa yokuba i-fuel yeplanti yamandla ityetyiswe nge-2 - 5% ye-uranium-235 ngelixa ukwenzela ukuba i-chain reaction yenziwe njengebhobho ye-athomu, ukutyebisa okungaphezulu kwe-90% yobunzima obubalulekileyo kuyadingeka.

Kwi-PWR i-chain reaction ilawulwa ngeentonga zokulawula kunye ne-boric acid echithwe emanzini. Iinduku zine-neutron ephezulu yokufunxa umthamo we-BWRs zinentonga zokulawula kuphela

iinqaba zokupholisa

Zezona zinto zibonakalayo zezixhobo zamandla enyukliya kunye nezityalo zamandla ezishushu. Ziitshimini ezinkulu, ezinceda ngokwenene ukupholisa umphunga, zizitshintshi zobushushu kwaye zivumela amanzi ukuba abuyiselwe kwindawo yawo (umlambo, ulwandle) phakathi kobushushu obuvumelekileyo be-3ºC.

Zinobungakanani obumalunga ne-150 m ukuphakama

I-fuel pool kunye ne-Cherenkov radiation

Yinto eyenzeka ngokwasemzimbeni eyenzeka kwizinto zamafutha ezikhupha ukukhanya okuluhlaza. Oku kubangelwa ngamasuntswana ahlawuliweyo akhutshwa ngamafutha asetyenzisiweyo, ahamba ngokukhawuleza kunokukhanya emanzini kwaye sinokubona ukukhanya okuhle okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka.

Apha unokubona umzekelo.

izicelo zeteknoloji yenyukliya

Nangona ingekasetyenziswa esithubeni, kukho iiprojekthi ezininzi kangangamashumi eminyaka okusebenzisa iijenereyitha ezifana ne-RTG radioisotope thermoelectric generator, esebenzisa i-thermocouples ukuguqula ukwahlukana kumandla ombane ithatha ithuba lesiphumo se-thermoelectric.

Elwandle isetyenziswa ekuqhubeni iinkwili zenyukliya.

Ikwasetyenziselwa ukuthandana, kunye ne-carbano-14

Kwinqanaba loshishino, kukho i-industrial scintigraphy, yindlela yokulawula yokuvavanya okungonakalisi, i-neutron radiography yokuvavanya iinxalenye, ii-cracks, i-corrosion, njl. I-Cobalt-60 isetyenziselwa ukwenza inzala kwiimveliso zonyango kunye namayeza, ukupakishwa kunye nezithambiso kunye neemveliso zokutya kwezolimo.

Ukuba unomdla kwiTekhnoloji yeNyukliya, jonga kwakhona ukuzalwa ngokutsha

Kwinqanaba lomsebenzisi, ikhona kwii-detectors zomsi, ezinye iiwotshi ezikhanyayo-ezimnyama, iipende ze-fluorescent, njl. Into ekhanyayo idla ngokusebenzisa i-tritium ene-radioactive.

Iyeza le-nucellar libandakanya i-radiographs okanye imifanekiso ye-radiological, i-radiopharmaceuticals, i-positron emission tomography (PET), i-radioimmunoassay, kunye nonyango lwe-radiation.

Ingozi

Abathathu baziwa kakhulu

ISiqithi se-Three Mile (TMI)

Iziko lamandla enyukliya ePennsylvania USA Isekethi yesibini ayiphumelelanga kwaye iimpompo zamanzi zokuzisa amanzi kwiijenereyitha zomphunga aziphumelelanga. Ke uxinzelelo oluphambili lwenyuka kakhulu. Ininzi ye-hydrogen yenziwe, kodwa ngethamsanqa ayizange iqhume. I-4% ye-core 62 yeetoni zezinto ezincibilikile, kodwa yonke into yayivalelwe kwinqanawa. ngoko ke kwakungekho ungcoliseko lweradioactive.

IChernobyl

Eyaziwa kakhulu, kunye nochungechunge lwayo kwiNetflix. Kule ncwadi kukho isahluko sonke esihlalutya uchungechunge kunye nayo yonke into ethethiweyo ngokufanelekileyo okanye engalunganga malunga nengozi. Ukufunda kakuhle ukuba uyibonile okanye uza kuyibona.

Ingozi yaseChernobyl yenzeke ngolunye uhlobo lwe-reactors RBMK Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy itshaneli-uhlobo lwe-reactor yamandla aphezulu. Banolwazi lokuba njengoko iqondo lobushushu linyuka amandla e-reactor enyuka, okwenza kube nzima kakhulu ukulawula kwimeko yengozi, ngokungafaniyo nee-reactors ze-PWR, ezinciphisa amandla kumaqondo aphezulu.

I-hoax eqhelekileyo kukuba iChernobyl ayiyi kuhlala iminyaka eyiwaka, kodwa oku akunjalo, enyanisweni, ukhenketho olukhokelwayo lwendawo sele luqhutywa kunye nemilinganiselo yokhuseleko ehambelanayo.

Fukushima

NgoMatshi 11, 2011, emva kwenyikima eyayinomlinganiselo we-9 kunxweme lwaseJapan, itsunami yonakalisa iziko lombane laseFukushima Daiichi. Iphulukene neejenereyitha zayo zedizili kwaye kwabakho uqhushumbo lwehydrogen olukhuphe imathiriyeli yeradioactive kwindalo esingqongileyo.

Akukhange kubekho kufa ngenxa ye-radioactivity. Abantu abayi-100.000 bafuduswa kwaye ngokutsho kwesifundo se-IZA, ukubanda kwabantu abafudukayo kubangele ukufa kwe-1280 ngaphezulu kunokuba bekungekho bantu bafudukayo.

Inkunkuma

Xa kuthethwa ngamandla enyukliya kukho uloyiko olukhulu. Abanye bayoyika ingozi kwaye omnye uloyiko lokuba mabenze ntoni ngenkunkuma.

Iintlobo zenkunkuma enemitha

RBBA: Inkunkuma yomsebenzi ephantsi kakhulu, ivela ekudilizweni kwemizi-mveliso yamandla enyukliya kwaye iza kuyeka ukwenza iradioactive kwiminyaka emi-5.

I-RBMA: Inkunkuma yomsebenzi ophantsi naphakathi: ziimpahla zokusebenza, izixhobo, izixhobo zonyango, kunye nemathiriyeli evela kwamanye amashishini. Inobomi besiqingatha seminyaka engama-30.

I-RAA: Inkunkuma yomsebenzi ophezulu. Asebenzisa amafutha aphuma kwimizi-mveliso yamandla enyukliya. Ngesiqingatha sobomi obungaphezu kweminyaka engama-30, ngamanye amaxesha amawaka eminyaka.

IGestión de residuos

Kukho izicwangciso-qhinga ezimbini, umjikelo ovaliweyo apho isibaso sihlaziywa ngokuyinxenye kunye nomjikelo ovulekileyo apho amafutha athathwa njengenkunkuma kwaye alawulwe ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo.

  • I-ATI: iivenkile zexeshana ezizimeleyo. Zisekelwe kwizikhongozeli zokugcina ezomileyo. Ayingomangcwaba enyukliya, asebenza phakathi kweminyaka engama-60 ne-100.
  • I-ATC yenza indawo enye yokugcina impahla yethutyana. Inceda ukugcina amafutha enyukliya ekhuselekile de kufumaneke isisombululo esiqinisekileyo. Nokuba iyarisayikilishe okanye uyithumele kwi-APG
  • I-AGP enzulu, indawo yokugcina umhlaba yexesha elide. Zama ukunqanda ukushiya izizukulwana ezizayo uxanduva lolawulo lwenkunkuma. Nje ukuba i-APG ivaliwe ayisafuni kugcinwa okanye ukubeka iliso.

ukurisayikilisha amafutha enyukliya

Kukho itekhnoloji yokuphinda isetyenziswe kwaye iphinde isebenzise i-fuel, nangona ingekasebenzi kakuhle, kwi-4th isizukulwana se-generator phantse yonke i-fuel iya kusetyenziswa, kucingelwa ukuba ukuya kuthi ga kwi-97% endaweni ye-5% yangoku.

Ngethuba nje kukho i-MOX ye-fuel ye-oxide edibeneyo ye-uranium kunye ne-plutonium. Yenziwe ngeplutonium ephinda isetyenziswe kwisibaso esisetyenzisiweyo. Ikwasebenza ukuphinda isetyenziswe iplutonium ukusuka kwiibhombu zeathom.

I-REMIX, lamafutha aveliswa kumxube weuranium esetyenzisiweyo neplutonium ukusuka kumafutha aphinde asetyenziswe. Inokuphinda isetyenziswe kwi-100% intlawulo kwi-VVER-1000 yangoku ye-reactors ukuya kumaxesha angama-5.

Amandla enyukliya eSpain

Kukho isahluko esithile senyukliya eSpain kunye nazo zonke iipolitiki zelizwe. Kodwa andizuqokelela nto. Nabani na ofuna ukwazi banzi makayifunde kwaye aphande ukumiswa kwenyukliya.

Amandla enyukliya ehlabathini lonke

I-10% yombane wehlabathi uveliswa zizixhobo zenyukliya ezingama-442. Kwi-2018, i-2563TWh yenziwe

Amazwe abheja kakhulu ngamandla enyukliya ngokudalwa kwezityalo kwixesha elizayo yiTshayina, i-Indiya, iRashiya, iMelika, iSaudi Arabia, iJapan, uMzantsi Afrika, neTurkey, kwakunye nePoland neUnited Kingdom.

I-WNA iphakamise inkqubo ye-Harmony, ukuvelisa ubuncinane i-25% yombane wehlabathi ngamandla enyukliya ngo-2050.

Amaziko avelisa amandla enyukliya aneminyaka engama-40 ubudala awakabugqibi ubomi bawo. Elo xesha libubomi bokuyila, oko kukuthi, into emele ihlale, kodwa ubomi bayo obuluncedo yinto enokumelana nayo kwiimeko ezilungileyo, kwaye izixhobo kunye nobuchwepheshe bunokuhlaziywa, kunye ukulungiswa kolungiso y uthinteloBenza ukuba bahlale ixesha elide.

Ubonelelo ngeUranium

I-uranium ixhaphake njenge-tin okanye i-zinc, ifumaneka inyibilika ematyeni (ngokuqhelekileyo igranite), emhlabeni, nakumanzi olwandle.

Amazwe anezona zibonelelo zaziwayo yi-Australia (39%), iKazakhstan (14%), iKhanada (8%), iRashiya (8%) emva koko amazwe afana neNamibia, uMzantsi Afrika, iChina, iNiger okanye iBrazil.

Iireactors ezingama-450 zehlabathi ezinomthamo wama-400GwE zifuna iitoni ezingama-65.000 ngonyaka.

Ukongeza kwi-phosphate kunye neediphozithi zomhlaba ezinqabileyo, ukhetho lokukhupha i-uranium emanzini olwandle luyaphononongwa. apho kuqikelelwa ukuba kukho i-4000 yezigidi zeetoni ze-uranium enyibilikileyo. Kwanele ukunika amandla iwaka lezixhobo zamandla enyukliya kwiminyaka eyi-100.000

Itorium

Ngowe-1828 uJöns Jakob Berzelius wafumanisa into entsha, iThorium, ethiywe ngoThor, uthixo weendudumo wamaNorse. Ngomnyaka we-1898 uGerhard Schmidt kunye noMarie Curie bafumanisa ngokuzimeleyo ukuba i-Thorium i-radioactive.

I-Th-232 ibola kancinci, isiqingatha sobomi yiminyaka eyi-14.000 yezigidigidi. Incinci kakhulu i-radioactive. I-Tori oxide (i-ThO2) okanye i-torianite ineyona ndawo iphakamileyo yokunyibilika kuzo zonke ii-oxides ezingama-3350ºC, isetyenziswa kwiibhalbhu zokukhanya, izibane zegesi, ii-electrode ze-welding, iiseramikhi, njl.

I-Indiya inomthamo omkhulu weThorium.

Kodwa ayivumbulukanga, ayiqhekeki xa ineutron ingqubana nayo. Ngoko awukwazi ukusebenzisa i-reactor yenyukliya ngokuthe ngqo, kodwa ngokufunxa i-neutron idlulisela kwi-U-233 enokuhluzwa.

Iingenelo zeThorium kukuba kuninzi, akufuneki ukuba kutyetyiswe kwaye kuvelise inkunkuma encinci. Kodwa kuyabiza ukwenza amafutha

I-SMR encinci ye-Reactors zeModyuli

I-SMR (i-Small modulate Reactor) zezo ezithe zasetyenziswa kwiinkwili.Kulula ukwenza ngokulandelelana, ukuthutha, njalo njalo.Zibandakanya zonke iinkqubo zokusebenza ngokuzimeleyo.

Ziphuhliswa nguNuScale Power e-US. Zilinganisa i-23m x 4,5m ububanzi kwaye zinika i-50Mwe yamandla.

E-Argentina, i-CAREM (i-Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares) iyaphuhliswa

ERashiya, i-KLT-40S isetyenziswa, eYurophu i-IRIS kunye nase-China i-pellet bed reactor, imodareyithwa yi-graphite. I-Japan isebenza kwi-reactor ye-200Mwe HTRP-PM.

ii-reactor ezintsha

Iitekhnoloji ezi-6 ezintsha, phantse zonke ezinomjikelo wamafutha ovaliweyo, ziqikelela ukuba i-97% yamafutha aya kusetyenziswa xa kuthelekiswa ne-5% yangoku.

Ezine zoyilo zisebenzisa iineutron ezikhawulezayo.

Kwifriji basebenzisa amanzi aqhelekileyo, i-2 epholile nge-helium, i-ogre enesodium, enye i-fluorine kunye nenye ngelothe.

LFR iNkokheli epholileyo iReactor ekhawulezayo

I-Hydrogen yivector yamandla esetyenziselwa ukugcina amandla.

I-MSR enyibilikisiweyo yereactor yetyuwa, apho iuranium inyibilika njengetyuwa kwisipholileyo.

Eyona nto isebenzayo ngoku yi-SFR sodium-cooled fast reactor. isebenzisa iuranium ephelelweyo njengesiseko samafutha.

Imeko ethile ye-SFR yi-actor ehambayo ye-TWR ephuhliswe nguTerraPower, eyasekwa nguBill Gates.

Ukudityaniswa kweNyukliya

iqweqwe lencwadi, amandla enyukliya

Iza kusebenzisa i-hydrogen, engaphelelwayo kwaye inexabiso eliphantsi kakhulu. Iya kuvelisa phantse akukho nkunkuma. izakuvelisa amandla amaninzi ngokwexabiso lamafutha ngaphezu kokuqhekeka

Eyona projekthi ithembisayo yi-ITER, ireyitha yovavanyo lwenyukliya yokudibanisa eFrance. Injongo yakhe yokuqala kukufumana iplasma ngo-2025, i itekak ukusuka kwi-ITER, iziimitha ezili-19 ububanzi neemitha ezili-11 ukuphakama yaye inobunzima obumalunga neetoni ezingama-5000. Injongo yayo kukuvelisa ama-500MW kumandla okufudumeza angama-50MW. Ngokulibaziseka kokwenziwa kunye nokwakha ngoku kucwangciswe ukuba kuza kwi-intanethi ngo-2040

Isiseko sokudibanisa kukuba sinika amandla amaninzi ukwenzela ukuba i-athomu ye-hydrogen ye-8 i-fuse, ifom ye-helium kwaye amandla amaninzi akhululwe ngendlela yokukhanya kunye nokushisa kunye neengqungquthela.

I-Fusion iphazanyiswa yi-repulsive electrostatic forces ye-nuclei. Ukufumana iiathom zidibanise kunzima kakhulu.

Obona buchwepheshe bunokuthi buphunyezwe, ngobuchwephesha bangoku, kukudityaniswa kwe-deuterium kunye ne-tritium, ii-isotopi ezimbini ze-hydrogen.

Sinokufikelela kwiqondo lokushisa elifunekayo lokudibanisa, inxalenye ekhohlisayo kukuvalelwa kweengqungquthela. Iiteknoloji ezi-2 zisetyenzwa.

Uvalelo lwemagnethi lwe-MFC, iplasma ivalelwe kumhlaba wemagnethi kuxinzelelo oluphantsi kakhulu kwaye ifudunyezwe kubushushu obunyibilikayo. Eyona ndlela ingcono kukusebenza nge-toroidal reactors, i-reactor itekak, kodwa ezinye ezintsonkothileyo ziyaphandwa inkwenkwezi.

ukuvalelwa ngaphakathi. imiqadi laser ingqalelo amafutha kunye shushu umaleko wangaphandle lo mba. eqhuma ngokucinezela ngaphakathi. Amandla akhutshiweyo afudumeza umdibaniso ovelisa amafutha. Ixesha elifunekayo ukuze oku kusabela kwenzeke lilinganiselwe yi-inetia yesibaso.


Onke la ngamanqaku athabathe ingqalelo yam kwaye endifuna ukuwakhumbula. Kodwa kule ncwadi kukho ulwazi oluninzi kwaye ngaphezu kwakho konke kuchazwe ngokunzulu ngakumbi. Ngoko ukuba uye waba nomdla, musa ukuba mathidala ukuyifunda.

Amakhonkco kuphando kwaye ufunde ngakumbi malunga Amandla kunye neTekhnoloji yeNyukliya

Ukuba ungumntu ongaphumliyo njengathi kwaye ufuna ukusebenzisana ekugcinweni nasekuphuculweni kweprojekthi, unokwenza umnikelo. Yonke imali iya kuthenga iincwadi kunye nezixhobo zokuvavanya kunye nokwenza izifundo

Shiya amazwana