Umatshini wokulawula amanani we-CNC

I-CNC yoomatshini bokulawula amanani kunye nezixhobo

Las oomatshini bokulawula amanani Zikho ngoku kwimizi-mveliso emininzi, kwaye nakwezinye iinkampani ezinje ngeeworkshops apho isinyithi okanye ezinye izinto zenziwe ngomatshini. Ngolu hlobo lomatshini kunokwenzeka ukonga ixesha kwaye ukwazi ukwenza machining kwamalungu ngokuchaneka ngakumbi kuneendlela zesandla kunye nezinye iintlobo zezixhobo eziphathwe ngabasebenzisi besebenzisa ihewheels, izandla, okanye ngezandla zabo.

I-CNC imele ukulawulwa kwamanani ekhompyuter okanye ikhompyuter

Olu hlobo lomatshini lufumene ukuphucula kakhulu umgangatho wamaqhekeza afunyenweyo, iindleko eziphantsi, ukwanda kwemveliso, kwaye okubaluleke ngakumbi, kufezekisa ukufana okukhulu phakathi kwamalungu aveliswa zezi ndlela.

Intshayelelo

Xa ukuvelisa iinxalenye, kumaxesha amaninzi kufuneka babe nemilinganiselo ethile kunye nemilo, ukongeza kwisakhiwo esithile, ukwakheka, ukumelana neenzame, njl. Eyona ndlela yokuvelisa la malungu aneempawu zobuchwephesha eziyimfuneko kukuhlalutya kunye noyilo lwazo zonke izinto ezichaphazela umgangatho wenxalenye yinjineli.

Injineli inokwenza inani leefayile ze ubalo lwekhompyuter ukumisela ukuba isiqwenga sokugqibela kufuneka sijongeka njani ukuze uzalisekise ukungxama kwakho. Kodwa ukuba, xa uyifumene le datha, inxenye ayenziwanga ngokuchanekileyo, wonke umsebenzi wakho unokuba sesichengeni. Umzekelo, ukuqina kobume, ukugoba, ukungcangcazela, njl njl kunokutshintshwa. Ukuze umsebenzi wenziwe ngokuchanekileyo, isisombululo zezi matshini zolawulo lwamanani, njengoko ubona kula macandelo alandelayo.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRjm3FsApOg

Historia

Oomatshini abaqhubayo abasebenza ngamandla basebenzise umzi-mveliso ukusukela ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-XNUMX. Kwakuyinyathelo lokuqala ukukhangela rhoqo imveliso kunye nokusebenza ngokufanelekileyo. Ngelo xesha, ngaphandle koomatshini, oomatshini babengekabikho emakhaya, nto leyo eyayibaluleke kakhulu. Oko kwenza iindleko zemveliso ziphezulu, zicotha, kunye neenzuzo ezisezantsi, umgangatho kunye nokuchaneka okufumanekileyo.

Oomatshini bolawulo banemvelaphi yabo kwiminyaka engama-40 no-50, eUnited States. Emva koko, injineli uJohn T. Parsons wasebenzisa oomatshini ababesekho ngelo xesha kunye nokulungiswa okuthile ukuze amanani adluliselwe kuye ngamakhadi okubetha. Ngale ndlela, umqhubi unokufaka amakhadi athethiweyo kwaye ii-Motors zinokuqhuba iintshukumo ezichanekileyo eziyimfuneko ekusetyenzisweni kwenxalenye. Oku bekungcono kakhulu kunenkqubo zangaphambili zokusebenzisa izixhobo zisebenzisa ii-levers okanye ii-handwheels ezihanjiswe ngabaqhubi, kodwa ezinokuthi zingachaneki ngokwaneleyo kwizicelo ezithile.

Oko Umatshini weParsons yayingeyonto eyodlula umatshini wokugaya onetekhnoloji yevalvevu engenziwa ngokulayisha idatha. Ukusukela ngoko, aba matshini bakudala bolawulo lwamanani baye bavela kwiinkqubo ezichanekileyo ngakumbi besebenzisa i-analog ye-elektroniki kunye netekhnoloji yolawulo lwedijithali kamva.

Inyathelo elikhulu kuxa iityhubhu zokucoca zithathelwa indawo zi-transistors, emva koko iisekethi ngeetshiphusi. Oko kuvelise utshintsho olukhulu kumzi mveliso, kunye nokuthotywa kwe abalawuli abancinci (MCU), oomatshini bakhokelwa ekubeni babe neenkqubo ezikrelekrele ngakumbi nezinokucwangciswa koomatshini.

Ingayenza yangoku ulawulo lwamanani lwekhompyuter okanye oomatshini be-CNC (Ulawulo lweKhompyuter lwamanani) kwii-70s, beka iziseko zoomatshini be-CNC njengoko sibazi namhlanje. Kancinci kancinci baqala ukungabizi kakhulu kwaye kulula ukwenza inkqubo, de basasazeka kuninzi lwamacandelo emizi-mveliso kunye neeworkshops zobukhulu bonke.

Olunye utsiba olukhulu luya kwenzeka nge-90s, xa itekhnoloji ye ulawulo lwamanani luvulekile. Oku akuvumeli kuphela ukulawulwa kwedatha, kodwa kwavumela ukwenziwa ngokwezifiso kunye nokufakwa kuseto oluthile ngenkqubo yokubulela kwinkqubela phambili yemizobo enobuchule.

Fumanisa ukuba yintoni Umzi mveliso 4.0 kwaye olu hlobo lwetekhnoloji lunokudityaniswa njani.

Oomatshini beCNC

Yintoni umatshini we-cnc

Los imigaqo yokusebenza yokulawulwa kwamanani okanye oomatshini be-CNC kulula kakhulu. Xa ufuna ukwenza umatshini inxenye, kufuneka uthotho lwezixhobo: oomatshini bokugaya, iisarha, oomatshini bokugrumba, njl. Ezi zixhobo, endaweni yokuba zikhokelwe ngumntu omnye, ngoku zinokucwangciswa zisebenzisa iinkqubo zokudibanisa ukuze zikwazi ukusebenza ngokuchanekileyo.

Ukusebenza kwayo ifana kakhulu neeprinta zangoku ze-3D, kuba basebenzisa amazembe ukuhambisa intloko (enyanisweni, iiprinta ze3D zinokuqondwa njengohlobo olukhethekileyo lomatshini we-CNC). Endaweni yentloko yokuprinta, ungasebenzisa ubuninzi bezixhobo (i-lathes, i-laser, umatshini wokugaya, i-jet yamanzi, i-EDM, cinezela, izixhobo zokusika, ukubhola, ukuwelda, ingalo yerobhothi, ...). Xa ufumana idatha, iya kuhamba isebenzisa ubude obude (i-X-axis), i-transverse (Z-axis), kunye ne-vertical (Y-axis). Abanye banamazembe ajikelezayo u-A, B no-C.

Njengabashicileli be3D, ukuze bakwazi ukwenza ezi ntshukumo ziyasetyenziswa Iimoto servo. Ufuna ikhowudi elungileyo okanye isoftware yokwenza inkqubo yokuhamba kwezi servomotors ukufezekisa iziphumo ezintle aba matshini banazo.

Ukongeza kwii-motors, lonke ulawulo lwamanani okanye umatshini we-CNC unazo ezinye Izinto ezibalulekileyo:

  • Isixhobo sokufaka: yinkqubo esetyenziselwa ukulayisha okanye ukuguqula idatha.
  • Icandelo lolawulo okanye i-microcontroller: sisixhobo esiphambili esikwaziyo ukutolika idatha efakiweyo kunye nokulawula ukuhamba kwe-servomotors ukuze benze kanye le nto inikiweyo ithi.
  • Isixhobo: yintloko esebenza kwesi siqwenga.
  • Inkqubo yokubotshwa / yenkxaso: apho iqhekeza lizimele khona ukwenza inkqubo ngaphandle kokuhamba. Ezi nkqubo, kuxhomekeka kuhlobo loomatshini, zinokuba nezinto ezingaphezulu, njengoko uza kukhumbula, umzekelo, koomatshini bokucutha iijet zamanzi esele sihlalutye kwinqaku elidlulileyo. Kwimeko apho, kwakudingeka ulwakhiwo lokuqokelela amanzi kwaye ngandlela thile ichithe amandla amakhulu e-jet yamanzi.
  • Inkqubo yeDrive kunye ujongano: ezi zinto zilawulwa ngumatshini onokuthi usebenze okanye ulawulwe. Ukongeza, ujongano lunokubonelela ngolwazi okanye ukubeka esweni inkqubo.

Izinto eziluncedo nezingalunganga ze-CNC

Njengayo nayiphi na inkqubo, oomatshini bokulawula amanani banezibonelelo zabo kunye nokungalunganga. Ngokucacileyo, izibonelelo zayo ngokucacileyo zigqwesile, kwaye zikwenza ukuba kufaneleke ukusebenzisa olu hlobo loomatshini ngaphandle koncedo kwiimeko ezininzi.

Ukukhonza iingenelo koomatshini be-CNC, kufanele kuqatshelwe:

  • Ukuzenzekelayo kwenza ukuba kube nokwenzeka ukulawula nokuqhuba iinkqubo zokuvelisa ngaphandle komzamo womntu.
  • Yandisa isantya kunye nemveliso. Yintoni evumela ukunciphisa iindleko kunye nokunyusa inzuzo yenkampani.
  • Ivumela ukuvelisa zonke iintlobo zamalungu kunye nokwenza uninzi lwenkqubo ukusuka kwinto eluhlaza ukuya kwimveliso egqityiweyo kwezinye iimeko.
  • Zicwangciswe ngokulula, ngokuchaneka okukhulu. Oku kuphucula umgangatho wamalungu kwaye kunciphisa iindleko zamalungu anesiphene.
  • Ukucwangciswa banokuziqhelanisa kakhulu.
  • Njengoko zingasebenzi ngabasebenzi, iindleko zolondolozo ziyancitshiswa ngenxa yokusetyenziswa gwenxa kwezixhobo.

Zonke ezi zibonelelo kufuneka zilinganiswe ngokudibeneyo kunye iziphene zayo:

  • Ukuncitshiswa kwabasebenzi okuyimfuneko (ngokwembono yentswela-ngqesho).
  • Iindleko zokuqala eziphezulu zaba matshini.
  • Ubungcali. Abanye baba matshini bajolise ekugayeni, ekubholeni, ekunyakeni, njl. Ngelixa umqhubi enokwenza uninzi lwale misebenzi xa kukho imfuneko. Nangona kunjalo, amaziko oomatshini bale mihla asebenzise isixhobo esinye kuphela, banokuba nezixhobo ukuya kuthi ga kwi-100 okanye nangaphezulu izixhobo ezinokusetyenziswa ezitshintshiweyo ngokuzenzekelayo ukwenza ubuninzi bemisebenzi eyahlukeneyo.

Iindidi zenkqubo ye-CNC

Lathes CNC noomatshini wokugaya

Oomatshini be-CNC banokucwangciswa ngu iindlela ezimbini ezisisiseko:

  • ngezandlaInkqubo yenziwa ngokufaka ulwazi olufunayo kwigobolondo. Yenziwe ngokusebenzisa ikhowudi yealphanumeric, enje nge-DIN 66024 kunye ne-66025 esemgangathweni.
  • Zenzekelayo: kule meko zenziwa ngekhompyuter. Umntu uya kungena kuthotho lweedatha ukwenza inxenye yesoftware kwaye le datha iguqulelwa kwimiyalelo yomatshini we-CNC ngolwimi olubizwa ngokuba yi-APT. Emva koko iguqulelwe kulwimi lomatshini (ezo kunye noziro) eziya kuthi ziqondwe ngumlawuli omncinci womatshini we-CNC ukwenza umatshini.

Kuyabonakala, kule mihla ezo zibekelwe izibonelelo zazo kunye nokusebenziseka lula zizinto ezizenzekelayo.

Ulwimi lwe-APT

El Ulwimi lwe-APT, Ngabo oomatshini be-CNC bacwangcisiwe, lulwimi lwenkqubo ekumgangatho ophezulu olusetyenziswa njengekhowudi ephakathi ngaphambi kokuba iguqulelwe kwikhowudi yomatshini ukuze itolikwe ngumatshini.

Kwakunjalo yenziwe kwi-MIT nguDouglas T. Ross, kwaye bayenzela ilebhu ye-servomechanisms elebhu ngo-1956.

Ithathelwa ingqalelo njenge eyandulela ii-CAMs zale mihla (UkuNcediswa yiKhompyutha), kwaye yabelana ngokufana okuninzi nezinye iilwimi zenkqubo yamandulo ezinje nge-FORTRAN. Umsebenzi wabo kukusebenzisa idatha evela kwiinkqubo ukuphatha oomatshini bokulawula amanani kunye nabo.

Oko kukuthi, imiyalelo ye-APT iya kutshintshwa yisoftware ibe yimiyalelo layisha kwimemori ye-microcontroller yomatshini we-CNC (njengedatha yokubini) kwaye le chip yolawulo iya kuba negunya lokuyiguqula ibe ziimpawu zombane ukuze ikwazi ukulawula iinjini zeservo kunye nezixhobo.

Las Imiyalelo ye-APT banokubhekisa kuninzi lolawulo kumatshini wokulawula amanani. Njengokuba:

  • Banokubonisa isantya kunye nokusebenza kwe-spindle (RPM).
  • Imisebenzi yokuncedisa enjengokujikeleza, ukumiswa okulungiselelwe, ukuba isixhobo kufuneka sitshintshwe ngokuzenzekelayo ...
  • Isidingo sefriji.
  • Ukuhamba kwezikhombisi (X, Y, Z kunye no-A, B, C).
  • Imisebenzi yokulungiselela (ixesha, ukuhamba, ukuphindaphinda imijikelezo, ...).

Ngokucacileyo, iinkqubo zangoku zivumela abaqhubi ukuba bangazi ulwimi lwe-APT, kodwa isoftware iyakhathalela yonke into ukuze inkqubo yenziwa ngendlela esekuhleni. Abaqulunqi bamacandelo kufuneka nje bajolise ekwenzeni icandelo abalifunayo ngeenkqubo ezifana ne-CAD.

Ukusuka kwi-DNC ukuya kujongano lwangoku

Inkqubo yokuqhubela phambili kunye ne-CNC
UMDALA: gd-jpeg v1.0 (usebenzisa IJG JPEG v80), umgangatho = 90

Okokugqibela, kuya kufuneka uyazi okuthile malunga igama elithi DNC (Ulawulo lwamanani ngqo). Le nkqubo isetyenziselwa ukulayisha idatha efunekayo yokwenza umatshini kumlawuli. Oko kukuthi, yindlela ekucwangciswe ngayo isoftware ye-CAM, okanye nge-APT, ilayishwe kumatshini wolawulo olucwangcisiweyo.

Ngokusisiseko yikhompyuter edityaniswe nenethiwekhi apho kukho umatshini omnye okanye nangaphezulu ye-CNC. Phambi kokuba isetyenziselwe ukusetyenziswa kothungelwano lohlobo lwe-RS-232C okanye i-RS422, kodwa ubuchwepheshe obutsha bonxibelelwano buziphucule ezi ndawo ethernet, kwaye ngaphandle kwamacingo.

Ngamanye amaxesha, le khompyuter (inokuba iyafana isetyenziselwe uyilo), ikwagcina inkqubo okanye imiyalelo eya kuthi ityiswe kumatshini we-CNC. Isizathu kukuba abanye abalawuli abancinci kwaba matshini banazo imemori encinci kakhulu yanele ukulungiselela yonke inkqubo yoomatshini.

Kwii-80s, izixhobo ezisetyenziselwe oku izitishi zomsebenzi ukusuka kwi-DEC, IBM, HP, i-Sun Microsystems, njl. Kancinci kancinci baye baba ngoomatshini abancinci kude kube ngoku zii-x86 iiPC. Uninzi lweekhompyuter ezincinci ezingabizi kakhulu ezinokuqhuba isixa esikhulu sesoftware esele ikho ye-CAD / CAM.

Kutshanje abanye ujongano lomzobo kunye nezikrini zokuchukumisa kwaye iikhompyuter zidityaniswe koomatshini bokulawula amanani ngokwabo zenza ezinye izixhobo zekhompyuter ezongezelelweyo zingafuneki. Yonke into oyifunayo ikumatshini uqobo okanye ikuvumela ukuba ulayishe inkqubo usebenzisa i-pendrive elula.

Ukuba ungumntu ongaphumliyo njengathi kwaye ufuna ukusebenzisana ekugcinweni nasekuphuculweni kweprojekthi, unokwenza umnikelo. Yonke imali iya kuthenga iincwadi kunye nezixhobo zokuvavanya kunye nokwenza izifundo