Isazi ngokuma komhlaba kuxinzelelo lukaNahúm Méndez

Isazi ngokuma komhlaba kuxinzelelo lukaNahúm Méndez

Isincoko esincinci sokwazisa kwihlabathi elimangalisayo lejoloji. Ilungele bonke abo bafuna ukuqala kwaye bafumane ukuba yintoni le yenzululwazi iyenzayo.

I-geologist ekubandezelekeni. Uhambo oludlula ngexesha ukuya kwezona ndawo zinzulu zoMhlaba

Umbhali nguNahúm Méndez, isayensi yokuma komhlaba kunye nombhali webhlog I-geologist ekubandezelekeni. Kudala ndimlandela kwi-twitter yakhe @geologoinapuros

Ndiyithandile, kodwa ndingathanda ukuba angene ngakumbi kwi-geology yentsimi. Ndiyathemba ukuba kuya kubakho ivolumu yesibini esele ingena kumxholo wohlobo lweefomati, amatye, izimbiwa, njl. Uxwebhu olunceda isayensi yemvelo ukuba iphume iye endle kwaye iqonde ukuba loluphi uhlobo lwento eyibonayo kwaye kutheni bayile.

Ndifuna ukuqaqambisa izinto ezi-2.

  1. Kuyo yonke le ncwadi sigxininisiwe kwaye sibonisiwe indlela ezizodwa ngayo ijiology, inzululwazi ngeenkwenkwezi, kunye nemozulu. Ijiology kunye nemozulu Iziphumo zeziganeko zokwakheka komhlaba ziyahluka ngokwemozulu, kodwa umahluko kwimozulu nawo ubangela iintlekele zokwakheka komhlaba
  2. Inkcazo yendlela ukuphela kweedinosaurs kunokuba ngayo. Kubonakala kum inqaku elinomdla kakhulu kunye nokwakhiwa ngokutsha.

ndiyakhumbula

Inkcazo emfutshane yamaxesha e-geological, ubuncinci uhlobo olusetyenzisiweyo kule ncwadi. Ngamanye amaxesha uthetha nathi malunga neeon kwaye ngamanye amaxesha malunga nobudala, amaxesha kwaye uze kundilahlekisa. Mhlawumbi isihlomelo ekugqibeleni ngolu lwazi sinokuba licebo elilungileyo.

Inqaku endifuna ukulijonga kakuhle ngolwazi lwangaphandle. Ngoku ndishiya amanye amanqaku kwizahluko ezahlukileyo, izinto ekufuneka ndizikhumbule kunye nezinye izihloko ukuze sandise kwikamva.

Ukuba ufuna ukwazi ngakumbi ngokubaluleka kweelwandle, jonga uphononongo lwe Ihlabathi eliluhlaza NguSylvia A. Earle

Amanqaku

Ukusekwa kwenkqubo yelanga

Yonke inxenye yokusekwa kwenkqubo yelanga kunye neplanethi yethu ikwacacisiwe kakuhle kwaye kufanelekile ukuba nemifanekiso enomtsalane kwimicimbi ekhethekileyo yeNational Geographic

Ukusuka kwi-Big Bang ukuya ekusekweni kwesixokelelwano selanga ngokusekwe kulungelelwaniso lweziqalelo ngumtsalane womxhuzulane obangela ukuba kwezona ndawo zixineneyo zezinto ezibonakalayo ziyahlangana, zenze iimeteor ezincinci eziqhubeka nokudibana kunye de zifumane ubunzima obuninzi ukuba kwi-nucleus iqala ukudibanisa, ukudibanisa nokwenza ezinye izinto.

Chaza iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zeeplanethi kwinkqubo, enamatye kunye negasi, nokuba kutheni zisenzeka nje

I-Kuiper Belt kunye ne-Oort Cloud. Oort, phakathi kweMars kunye neJupiter. uninzi lwemizimba inamatye kunye nesinyithi

Eyona asteroid inkulu yiCeres enobubanzi obumalunga neekhilomitha eziliwaka

I-Kuiper ngaphaya kwendlela ye-Neptune yenziwe ngomkhenkce.

Ukubunjwa komhlaba nenyanga

Ukubunjwa komhlaba kufana nezinye iiplanethi zenkqubo yelanga. Chaza ukuba umhlaba unezangqa kunye neembono ezintathu ezamkelekileyo malunga nokwakheka kwenyanga, ifission, echazwe nguGeorge Darwin, unyana kaCharles Darwin ekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX. Ukubanjwa kunye neempembelelo ezinkulu ezona zamkelwe kakhulu

Intlekele yentsimbi eyenzeke xa uMhlaba ungaphezulu kwe-1538ºC, iqondo lobushushu apho inyithi iyanyibilika. Iplanethi yayikwimeko ye-viscous kwaye izinto ezinzima zazitshona embindini.

I-Precambrian

Ithatha iminyaka eziibhiliyoni ezi-4.000, i-90% yembali yomhlaba

UJames hutton, uyaqonda ukuba izikali zexesha le-geological zaziphangalele kwaye iminyaka yomhlaba ebalwe ngemibhalo yebhayibhile ayisebenzi

Ukusuka kwimitha ye-radiometric ethatha ithuba lokwahlukana kunye ne-isotopso, amaxabiso asondeleyo kwezi zangoku aqala ukubalwa.

UArthur Holmes ngo-1940 ngezi ndlela zobuchwephesha bafaka uMhlaba kwiminyaka engama-4500 yezigidi.

Ukusuka apha siya kwinkcazo yamanqanaba oMhlaba ahlukeneyo, kubume bawo bangaphakathi

Ukusuka kwi-Wegener's Continental drift ukuya kwi-plate tectonics, eyintsingiselo eyamkelekileyo namhlanje

Kwaye isahluko siphela ngoqhaqho olukhulu lweli xesha xa ikhulu lamawaka eminyaka ibiphola de izaliswe ngumkhenkce kangangezigidi ezingama-50 zeminyaka. Isenokuba ngenxa yeemeko ezahlukeneyo. Ubunzima belizwekazi kwenye indawo obubonisa ubushushu ngakumbi kunokuba bulifunxe. Imvula yanetha kakhulu kwaye amanzi kwaye i-co2 yasabela elityeni kwaye njengoko kwakungekho co2 encinci kukho ubushushu obuncinci emoyeni kunye nokudubula okunokwenzeka kwentaba-mlilo eluthuthu lwayo lwaluza kubonakalisa imitha yelanga kwaye ayivumeli ubushushu bangene

IPaleozoic

Ijolise kwiCambrian ngokwenziwa kwePangea, enye yeendawo ezihamba phambili eziye zavela nomphezulu wazo (Gondwana9 emva koko kwiCarboniferous

Kwizinto ezintlanu zokucima ezenzekileyo kwiplanethi yethu, ezintathu zenzeka kwiPaleozoic

Ukuphela, ukuphela kunye nexesha lamalahle, i-carboniferous, yokubonakala kwezityalo emhlabeni kunye nendlela i-Ordovician-Silurian glaciation enokubangela ngayo

Ifossilisation kwaye zenziwa njani ii-supercontinents

Kwaye ukuphela kwempazamo eyoyikekayo phakathi kwePermian neTriassic, ukuphela kodwa ukuphela kwembali kwaye yayiyeyona nto yahlahla indlela yedinosaurs

IMesozoic

Ukusuka kwiminyaka ezizigidi ezingama-250 eyadlulayo ukuya kwiminyaka engama-66 yezigidi eyadlulayo. Kuyaziwa ngokuba lixesha apho iidinosaurs zalawula uMhlaba.

Ibandakanya, i-Triassic, iJurassic, iCretaceous yeyona nto ivakala ngathi sonke. KwiJurassic naseCretaceous kukho ukunyuka kwamanqanaba olwandle abalulekileyo.

Iintyatyambo zokuqala ziyavela. Kwaye kwiCretaceous, iinyosi ziyavela.

Kwi-Triassic izilwanyana zokuqala zibonakala, ezazincinci ngobukhulu kwaye iintaka zokuqala ezivela kwindalo yee-dinosaurs ziyabonakala

Ukupheliswa kweTriassic-Jurassic, ayisiyiyo eyaziwayo ngaphandle kokubulala i-1/3 yeentlobo zomhlaba. Emva kokuphela, iidinosaurs zaqala ukulawula.

KwiPaleozoic, uninzi loovimba beCarbon benziwa kwaye kwiMesozoic, uninzi lweehydrocarbon ezifana neoyile.

Ukuphela kweCretaceous-Paleogene. Eyona yaziwa kakhulu, yile yemeteorite icime iidinosaurs. I-75% yeentlobo emhlabeni zanyamalala

Chicxulub mngxuma phakathi usingasiqithi Yucatan kunye Gulf of Mexico

I-2 lamawaka eekhilomitha ejikeleze impembelelo inokuwisa amahlathi, inyikima enobukhulu be-01 okanye i-11 yenziwa.

I-Cenozoic (ixesha lezilwanyana ezincelisayo)

Kuthetha ubomi obutsha. Amazwekazi aya kwiindawo zawo zangoku njengoko iPangea iqhekeka. Lixesha lokupholisa umhlaba

Ingxubakaxaka yobungcwele boMesiya

Emazantsi eMeditera kukho iidipozithi ezinkulu zetyuwa, kwezinye iindawo zi-3km ukutyeba. Kucingelwa ukuba yomile okanye eyi-eo iminyaka engama-300.000. Kucingelwa ukuba indawo yeStrait yaseGibralatar yaphakanyiswa kukungqubana kwamacwecwe amabini kwaye kungangeni manzi. Okwangoku ukuba iMeditera yangena kwakhona yagcwalisa, yathetha ngokunyuka kwe-10 m ngemini kunye nokungena kwamanzi nge-300km / h ngeengxangxasi ezingaphezulu kweemitha ezili-1000

NONE

INew Zealand iyakuba yinxalenye ye-Zealand, icandelo eliya kuhlala livela. UZeeland wayeyinxalenye yeGondwana, emva kokuba uPangea eqhekeze iminyaka engama-200 ezigidi eyadlulayo

I-Quaternary kunye neminye iminyaka yeqhwa

I-Astronomy kunye neengcamango ezinxulumene nokuhamba komhlaba kwixesha le-quaternary ice. Imijikelezo yaseMilankovitch elawula imozulu yoMhlaba

Ii-dryas zamva nje

Ugqiba ukuthetha ngeentaba-mlilo kunye nemozulu kunye nokufudumala kwehlabathi okuzayo.

Ikamva loMhlaba

Khankanya iAnthropocene

Ukukhangelwa kwemithombo yendawo, isinyithi, izimbiwa, amanzi asteroids asemajukujukwini,

Kunye nezizathu ezinokubakho zokuphela komhlaba, iingozi ze-geological ezisongelayo.

Ifoto yegalari

Ezinye zeefoto endizithathileyo ukuba zikhaphe uphononongo, kunye ne-calcite, ene-geode kunye neefosili ezininzi

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