Ukuziphatha kweCosmopolitan ngu-Adela Cortina

Ukubheja kwengqondo ngamaxesha obhubhane.

Ndathi andizukuphinda ndifunde ezinye iincwadi okanye izincoko ezichasene nemvelaphi yobhubhane. Emva kokuphoxeka kwe Ubhubhani weZizek,ndayikhupha I-Innerarity Pandemokhrasi kwaye ndandisele ndigcwalise idosi yam yezincoko zobhubhane.

Emva koko ndeza kwithala leencwadi kwaye ndabona ivolumu ethi Ethics cosmopolita kunye nam ngo-Adela Cortina ndayifunda yonke into endiyifumanayo. Ngalo lonke ixesha umdla. Kwiblogi ndishiye uphononongo lwe Yintoni elungileyo yokuziphatha efanelekileyo? yaye ndisalindele eyona ncwadi yakhe idumileyo ethi Aporophobia, ukugatywa kwamahlwempu.

Le ncwadi kufuneka ibe kwithala lam lobuqu. Yenye yezo ncwadi onokuthi ukrwelele umgca ngaphantsi xa zizonke kwaye kufuneka uqhubeke ufunda kwakhona. Unga yithenge apha.

Kwaye oku ndishiya njengesiqhelo amanqaku anomdla kum.

Ukuba sesichengeni kunye noxanduva

Kwiindlela zokuziphatha zokunyamekela, uxanduva, ukunyaniseka, ukuphindaphinda, uvelwano, isidima.

Impendulo kaEmmanuel Levinas icacile. Bubuso bomnye, umfanekiso wobuthathaka babo, obundiqhubela ekubeni ndiziphathe kakuhle, hayi ukuzimela geqe okanye inkululeko yomntu ngamnye. Kukuba ngomnye umntu odinga uncedo okundenza ndibe ngumbandela wokuziphatha, ndibophelelekile ukuba ndinikele uncedo, okundenza ndibe nembopheleleko. Bubukho bobunye obubangela uxanduva lokuziphatha, ngaphaya kokulingana. Uxanduva aluphumi kum, kodwa ngaphandle, ayindim othabatha inyathelo, kodwa amandla obuso balowo ubandezelekileyo.

Enye into ecacileyo endiyifundileyo emva kokufunda le ncwadi kukuba kufuneka ndifunde i-Ortega y Gasset ngoku Aristotle.

Kuba ubomi bomntu ngumsebenzi kunye nomsebenzi wokuziphatha owenzayo, ukuzenza ngokukhetha kwiimeko ezibambekayo ukusuka kumaxabiso athile okanye kwabanye, njengoko watshoyo u-Ortega. Ngenxa yoko, ukungathathi cala akukho, kodwa sihlala siphila ngokuxabisa, sikhetha iinjongo ezithile okanye ezinye.

Yikhathalele idemokhrasi

Iindidi zedemokhrasi kunye nezinto esizidingayo ukuze idemokhrasi isebenze. Kwaye phakathi kwalo lonke olu lwazi olu luhlu lobulumko endifuna ukuluqaqambisa ngenxa yokuba lukhoyo namhlanje kuluntu lwethu.

Ukuze idemokhrasi isebenze, abezopolitiko kufuneka bahloniphe umahluko phakathi kotshaba kunye notshaba. Umchasi ngumntu ofuna ukumoyisa. Utshaba ngumntu ofuna ukumtshabalalisa. Ngelishwa, ukwanda kwezopolitiko zeentshaba, i ezopolitiko njengemfazweKuthabathel’ indawo iipolitiki zeentshaba, yaye ukubekek’ ityala kwabantu bolunye uphawu okanye kolunye kubekek’ ityala ngoku.

Idemokhrasi sisihloko esingenangxaki kakhulu kule bhlog enokufundwa okuninzi

Isixeko esilungileyo

Ukubuyisela isixeko njengendawo yokuhlangana yentlalo, yenkcubeko nezopolitiko

Ilungelo lesixeko lilungelo elidityanelweyo, lithetha ngandlel’ ithile amandla okusilungiselela ngokwalathisa inkqubo yokufudukela ezidolophini. Kwaye isixeko sesinye seendlela zombutho wabantu onenjongo yokunceda ukukhusela izinto eziphathekayo kunye namalungelo asemthethweni abumba ubumi: amalungelo anxulumene nezindlu, indawo yoluntu, ukuthutha, indawo ephilileyo. Kodwa kunye namalungelo ezopolitiko kunye nentlalontle amisela ukufakwa esixekweni, njengokulingana kwezopolitiko-ngokomthetho, ukuzazi kwegcuntswana, umvuzo wommi okanye umvuzo osisiseko, uqeqesho oluqhubekayo, ukhathalelo ngamaxesha okuba semngciphekweni okhethekileyo, ilungelo lokusingqongileyo okunempilo kunye nophuhliso. . Konke oku, ileyibhile enye okanye enye, ibango lokwakha izixeko nje, kodwa kumaxesha amva nje imigca yophando ivulwe ngokucacileyo ngesihloko esithi "isixeko esilungileyo"

Kufuneka sifumanise ubuncinci bobulungisa ekufuneka wonke umntu abelane naye ukuze sakhe eso sixeko sinobulungisa. ukuba ngabaququzeleli bezopolitiko kunye nabaphathi bokulunga komntu wonke.

Ugqiba ukudwelisa imingeni elindileyo ukuphumeza isixeko esilungileyo, kodwa ndicinga ukuba esi sihloko kufuneka sijongwe kwinqaku elahlukileyo.

Gerontophobia kunye nobhubhane

Ngokuqinisekileyo ungomnye wemiba ebuthathaka kakhulu kulo bhubhani uphela. Xa kwakungekho zixhobo zaneleyo zokunyamekela wonk’ ubani yaye abantu abaninzi babefuna ukuba abalupheleyo bashiywe ngaphandle ngenxa yokuba ubomi babo buncinane okanye ngenxa yokuba sele bephile ixesha elide. Bendingathandi ukuba ngulowo kufuneka akhethe ophilayo nofayo. Kodwa ndicacile ukuba kufuneka ube noluhlu lwemigaqo kwaye umbhali uyichaza kakuhle.

Kwimeko yengxelo evela kwi-Ofisi yoMphathiswa wezeMpilo, ichazwe ngokucacileyo ukuba ingacalucalulo ngokobudala okanye ukukhubazeka, kodwa ukuyiqwalasela kwimeko-nge-case, ngokuqwalasela imeko yeklinikhi kunye nokulindela injongo. yesigulane ngasinye. Izigulana esele zikhulile kufuneka zinyangwe phantsi kweemeko ezifanayo njengabo bonke abanye abantu, bejonga imeko nganye, kwaye kwenzeka okufanayo nakubantu abakhubazekileyo okanye abanesifo sengqondo esiyingozi. Ixabiso elilinganayo labantu bonke liyayifuna. I-heuristic yesidima isindisa ubomi kwaye, kule meko, inqanda ngokuchasene ne-gerontophobia enokuthi ibe ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi kwaye icace. Esi sisifundo esineziqhamo kwixesha langoku nakwixesha elizayo.

Uluntu, ukuchuma kunye luncedo

Ngumxholo ophindaphindiweyo kubuntu, ukuthetha malunga noluntu olunenzuzo. Kuyinyani ukuba kwixesha lethu balibalekile kakhulu ngokuthanda isayensi kwaye le manyano phakathi koqeqesho ilahlekile.

… Amagama aqhelekileyo ka-Aristotle ayavakala, ekhumbula ukuba ifilosofi yokuqala yeyona nzululwazi igqwesileyo ngokuchanekileyo kuba ayinamveliso: «Kuyabonakala ukuba asiyifuneli naluphi na olunye usebenziso, kodwa kanye njengoko sibiza umntu okhululekileyo ozenzele yena. kwaye kungekhona enye, ngaloo ndlela sithatha oku njengesayensi kuphela yamahhala, kuba le yodwa iyodwa ".

Kwincwadi yakhe Ayinangeniso UMartha C. Nussbaum ujongana nesihloko esifanayo.

Ngoko ke, kuya kuba lula ukucacisa izikhundla ezifana nezo zikaMarta C. NJssbaum, obhalwe kwi-Non-profit text, njengazo zonke ezi ntlobo zolu hlobo, ugxeka ukuhaha kwehlabathi lehlabathi, eliqhutywa ngumnqweno wokufumana inzuzo, kwi nto leyo iyimfuneko ekukhuseleni uluntu ngenxa yokuba abalandeli nzuzo, kwaye ngenxa yeso sizathu, bayindawo ebalulekileyo yophuhliso loluntu kunye nedemokhrasi.

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Ke ngoko, kufanelekile ukubhenela kwizindululo ezinje ngekaRens Bod kwincwadi yakhe yesikhumbuzo Imbali eNtsha yoBuntu, apho athi uluntu luye lwanegalelo kwinkqubela phambili yezoqoqosho kunye nokucombulula iingxaki ezibambekayo. Ngokombono kaBod, okwenzekayo kukuba iimbali ezininzi zenzululwazi ziye zabhalwa zibalaselisa impumelelo yayo kwintlalo-ntle yoluntu, kodwa akukho mbali yoluntu lulonke ebhaliweyo. Ukuba besisazi imbali yoluntu, besiya kuqonda ukuba imibono yabo iyitshintshile indlela yehlabathi,

Ndincoma kakhulu uNuccio Ordine kwincwadi yakhe enkulu Ukuba luncedo kokungenamsebenzi.

Walumkele amagama. Ubuntatheli kunye nemidiya yoluntu

Ukubaluleka kobuntatheli, ilizwi, inyaniso kunye nefuthe leintanethi zentlalo ebomini bethu njengabemi

Ngoko ke, kukhangeleka ngathi amajelo onxibelelwano, awazalwa enesithembiso sokomeleza idemokhrasi, xa kujongwa indlela esebenza ngayo, ayanceda kakhulu ekuyijongeleni phantsi. Benza ukuba iindaba zifumaneke kubantu abangenakukwazi ukufikelela kubo, kodwa zinikezelwa ezikhethiweyo kwaye zigqwethekile ngendlela yokuba ukufikelela kwinyani kubonakala ngathi akuvumelekanga.

Ngamaxesha apho i-emotivism ilawula indawo yoluntu ukusuka kwinkohliso, emva kwenyaniso, i-schematic populisms, izindululo ze-demagogic, izibheno kwiimvakalelo eziphazamisayo, kuyangxamiseka ukukhumbula ukuba iimfuno zobulungisa ziziphatha kakuhle xa zibandakanya izizathu ezinokuthi zenziwe zicace kwaye ukuba kunokwenzeka ukwenza ngabom ngokuphandle. Kwaye, ngaphezu kwayo yonke into, ukuba inqobo yokuqonda xa imfuno ilungile ayikobunzulu bokukhwaza esitratweni okanye kuthungelwano, kodwa ibandakanya ukuqinisekiswa ukuba iyanelisa iimfuno ezixhaphakileyo, hayi ezo zeqela kuphela, hayi nje kuphela. abo beqela.isininzi. yeyona ngxoxo ilungileyo leyo, intliziyo yobulungisa.

Populisms

Eli candelo lichaza into ebekhe sazibuza yona sonke ngaxa lithile xa sisithi. Kwenzeka njani ukuba baqhubeke nokuvotela u-X? Nabani na endimaziyo, iqela kunye neengcamango ezizizo. Ngento axoke ngayo, kwenzeka njani ukuba abantu bangamthatheli ngqalelo baphinde bamvotele.

Ngokwenene, inzululwazi yokuqonda ityhila ukuba abantu bacinga ngokwesakhelo sovavanyo kunye nezikweko; iifreyimu zikhona kwii-synapses zobuchopho, zikhoyo ngokwasemzimbeni ngendlela yeesekethe ze-neural; sitolika iinyani ezikwezo freyimu, ngoko xa iinyani zingahambelani nezakhelo, sigcina iifreyimu kwaye sizihoye iinyani. Oku kuchaza ukuba ukwazi ama-scandals ngokumalunga nezopolitiko zeqela ngokwalo, ukuba neendaba zokuba azihambelani, zikhohlakele, okanye zinika iziphakamiso kodwa kunokuba zizenze, azitshintshi izikhundla zabemi abaninzi. Emva kokuba isakhelo sakhiwe, ukuba izibakala azihambelani nesakhelo - zibonakala ngathi - zimbi ngakumbi kwiinyani.

Yingakho imfundo kunye nokucinga okunzulu kubalulekile.

Isizathu kunye neemvakalelo ngedemokhrasi

Izinto ezibaluleke ngokwenene, ngokwembono yedemokhrasi yomgaqo-siseko okanye ubuzwe boluntu ziya kushwankathelwa koko kuye kubizwa ngokuba kukuthand’ izwe ngokomgaqo-siseko. Kubandakanya, eneneni, ukubambelela kubuncinane bobulungisa ukuba uluntu alunakubukhanyela ngaphandle kokuwela ngaphantsi kobuncinane bobuntu, kwaye oko kufuneka kuxhaswe yimigangatho yeenqobo esemgangathweni yobukhulu.

Iinqobo zokuziphatha zeCosmopolitan

Njengoko sisiya phambili, siya singena nzulu nangakumbi kwingqikelelo yendlela yokuziphatha kwabantu bonke, ukugqiba izahluko ezibini zokugqibela zencwadi ezinikele kwi-cosmopolitanism.

Indlalifa kwi-aoga yokhanyiselo luluntu lwabantu abakhululekileyo, abakwaziyo ukubonisa ukuchasa kwabo kumabango abizwa ngokuba anengqiqo.

Yindlela yokuziphatha yehlabathi ekusombululeni iingxaki zehlabathi. equka bonke abantu kunye nendalo esithatha ngayo izigqibo ezisichaphazela sonke. Isidingo sokuqonda kunye nokudibanisa iinkcubeko ezahlukeneyo, kodwa phantsi kobulungisa behlabathi jikelele benkulungwane yama-XNUMX ukukhusela iziphelo ezigqitywe zibalulekileyo kubo bonke kwaye kufuneka sizibeke phambili.

Ububi obugqibeleleyo, ngokwenxalenye yabo, bubandakanya utyekelo lokubeka phambili ukuzingca kunomthetho wokuziphatha, ukulandela umgaqo wokuzicingela esinokuthi ngawo sivumelane noluntu ngokubanzi. Oku kubekwa phambili kokuzingca, okuhlala kuhleli kwihlabathi lokuziphatha, kusisiseko sevidiyo yesiLatini dictum meliora proboque deteriora sequor.

Kodwa umbhali ushiya i-utopian cosmopolitan city ukuba athethe ngeengxaki ezinokuthi le-iste ibe nazo ingakumbi iingxaki esinokuba nazo xa sizama ukuphumeza le nkqubo.

Abantu kufuneka baxhotyiswe ukuba babe sisiphelo kubo. Ukuziphatha kwabantu bonke ngaphandle kobulungisa behlabathi akunakwenzeka, kodwa oku kuya kufuna urhulumente wehlabathi, into engaphandle kwamathemba ekamva.

Nangona ngakumbi nangakumbi ngenxa yokudityaniswa kwehlabathi kukho iimeko

Njengoko ubona, kuninzi ukufunda nokucamngca.

Sithetha ngento endicinga ukuba yitypo

Kwiphepha 84, kuthethwa igama negama

Siyazi ukuba uMbutho waseSarnago, laa dolophu yaseSoriano awabalisa ngayo kakuhle uJulio Llamazares kwiMvula etyheli-kuba iidolophu zinxulumene-, ukwazile ukuyibuyisela kwisimo sangaphambili kwaye iphinde iphinde ifumane kwakhona, ...

Ewe, abantu ekubhekiselwe kubo kwinoveli kaJulio Llamazares (iphononongwe kwibhlog) nguAinielle, kwaye useHuesca.

Isicatshulwa esinomdla

ubume bezifundo ezahlukeneyo buquka ulwazi lomntu. Njengoko abadali beYunivesithi yaseHumboldt yaseBerlin babesazi kakuhle, ingqiqo yomntu iyingqayizivele, kwithiyori, ukusetyenziswa okanye ukusetyenziswa kwezobugcisa, kwaye ubunye bayo bubonakala kwiinkalo ezahlukeneyo zolwazi oluvela kwifilosofi "njenge-meta-knowledge"

Iincwadi

  • Incinci intle: Uqoqosho ngokungathi abantu babalulekile nguErnst Friedrich Schumacher
  • IRiphabhlikhi kaPhilip Pettit
  • Igqabi elibomvu likaMiguel Delibes
  • Ezi nkcubeko zimbini kunye nenguqu kwezenzululwazi. Ngefiziksi yaseBritane kunye nombhali wenoveli uCP Snow
  • I-Utilitarianism kaJohn Stuart Mill
  • Imbali entsha yoluntu nguRens Bod

Kukho ezinye ezi-3 ezinomdla kodwa ndizifundile

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