Ulawulo lomgangatho

Umgca wendibano esemgangathweni kolu shishino

El lawulo lo mgangatho ibe lelinye inqanaba kushishino. Kwaye ayisiyiyo kuphela imfuno yabenzi yokuhlengahlengisa iimveliso zabo kukhuseleko okanye eminye imigaqo kunye nemigangatho ebekwe phantsi kwemigaqo eyahlukeneyo. Ukwanelisa abasebenzisi abaya benamanani amakhulu okhetho phakathi kokhuphiswano, kwaye baya besazi ngakumbi malunga nomgangatho kunye neempawu zeemveliso kwintengiso.

Ke ngoko, ngumenzi ngokwakhe ekufuneka aqinisekise ukuba iimveliso zakhe ziyahambelana imigangatho esisiseko kunye nomgangatho owaneleyo njengabathengi abonwabileyo (ukunyaniseka). Ukongeza, olu lawulo lomgangatho lusebenzela umzi-mveliso njengempendulo elungileyo yokuphucula imveliso, kunye namaxabiso asezantsi athathwe kukusilela okanye ukubuya.

Yintoni ulawulo lomgangatho?

El lawulo lo mgangatho Yenkampani inokusetyenziswa hayi kwiimveliso ezibonakalayo kuphela, kodwa nakwiinkonzo ezithile okanye iimveliso ezinje ngesoftware. Yiseti yezixhobo, iintshukumo okanye iindlela ezisetyenzisiweyo ukuze kuchongwe iingxaki ezinokubakho okanye iimpazamo kuphuhliso. Ngale ndlela, inkqubo yemveliso iphuculwe ukunqanda okanye ukunciphisa iimpazamo ezizayo okanye iziphene, kunye nokufumana iziphumo ezihambelana ngakumbi.

Ngaphandle kokulula kwenkcazo, ayisiyonto ilula le. Yenziwe ngamanqanaba ngamanqanaba (ukucwangciswa, ulawulo kunye nokuphuculwa) kwaye uthotho lwemigangatho kufuneka kuhlangatyezwane nayo (ukuhlangabezana neemfuno zokhuseleko lobuchwephesha, ukufuna imveliso kunye nokwandisa inzuzo). Ukongeza, ukuba iyimveliso entsonkothileyo eyenziwe ziisysystems ezininzi okanye iinxalenye, nganye yezi zinto inokufuna ulawulo lwayo lomgangatho.

Historia

Imbali yolawulo lomgangatho kunye nolawulo

Ukuba sijonga ngasemva, ulawulo lomgangatho lukhona abaphambili bayo, njengomsebenzi opapashwe nguFrederick Winslow Taylor wokulinganiswa kwemisebenzi ngo-1911. Emva koko enye indlela yolawulo lwamanani yayiza kuza ngo-1931 nguWalter A. Shewhart. Kodwa kwakungekho ngo-1956 apho iArmand Feigenbaum yadala ulawulo olupheleleyo lomgangatho.

Eminye imisebenzi kamva, enje nge ithiyori yokungaziphathi kakuhle kunye nePhil Crosby's 14 Steps (1979) nazo zaziluncedo njengomphelelisi. UWilliam Edwards Deming wayeza kuphuhlisa nomsebenzi kaShewhart ngo-1986. Koko kungongezwa eminye imisebenzi efana naleyo kaJoseph M. Juran naleyo Kaoru Ishikawa, zombini ngo-1985.

Okokugqibela, ngo-1988, uShigeru Misuno uza kuphuhlisa un ulawulo lomgangatho omtsha isetyenziswe kubo bonke "ububanzi" benkampani, kwaye ngo-1990 kwafika ukusetyenziswa kwezixhobo eziphambili zokuzisebenzisa kwiinkqubo zolawulo lomgangatho zizonke, ezinje ngenkqubo yeSigma Sigma. Oku kunciphisa umahluko weenkqubo, kunye nokwenza kwazo ukunciphisa okanye ukuphelisa ukusilela okanye ukusilela kwiimveliso ezifunyenweyo.

Isuka e kwiminyaka yama-90, Iinkqubo zolawulo lomgangatho zazisiya zixhaphakile nakwimizi-mveliso emincinci, ifikelela phantse kuzo zonke iikhonkco zemveliso, nakuwo onke amacandelo.

Iinjongo

El injongo Ulawulo lomgangatho kukubonelela abathengi ngemveliso eyonelisayo ngakumbi kunye neziqinisekiso. Ukuze oku kwenzeke, kufuneka kusetyenziswe kuzo zonke iinkqubo zenkampani okanye, okona kubalulekileyo. Kungale ndlela kuphela apho inani elincitshisiweyo lokungaphumeleli lifumanekayo kwaye lihlangabezane nemigangatho esemgangathweni ebekwe ngumthetho okanye yinkampani uqobo.

Okwangoku, ukufezekisa ezi njongo unokuthembela kuzo izixhobo zekhompyuter, AI, kunye noomatshini abazisebenzelayo elula kakhulu inkqubo yolawulo lomgangatho. Umzekelo, ungasebenzisa siiinkqubo zombono ezingezizo ezinje ngezo sele sihlalutye kwelinye inqaku kweli phepha.

Ewe kunjalo, zikhona iimodeli ezinokusetyenziswa ukuphucula iinkqubos, ezinje ngokuFunda ukuvelisa, imodeli yolawulo ukunciphisa ilahleko kunye nokuphucula ukwaneliseka kwabathengi ekugqibeleni; okanye iMonozukuri, enye indlela yokuziqhelanisa nokwenza iinkqubo zechungechunge ezilandela uthotho lwefilosofi eyakhiwe eJapan.

Izinto eziluncedo kulawulo lomgangatho

Ukuphunyezwa kwenkqubo yolawulo lomgangatho kwinkampani inoluhlu lwezibonelelo ezicacileyo. Iinjongo ngokwazo zinokukunika umbono wento onokuthi uyiphucule kwinkampani kodwa, ukongeza kuloo nto unayo ezi zinto zilandelayo:

  • Inokuphucula imveliso yenkampani, kunye nendlela eyenzeka ngayo inkqubo nganye kunye nokunxibelelana phakathi kwabo.
  • Ivumela ukujonga ngakumbi imveliso.
  • Yenza ukuba kubonwe iingxaki ngaphambi kokuba imveliso ithengiswe, ekuvumela ukuba ulungise ingxaki kwaye unqande ilahleko ngenxa yembuyekezo, ukulungiswa okanye ukulahleka kwabathengi abangonelisekanga.
  • Iphucula umfanekiso wenkampani ngokugcina umgangatho kumgangatho weemveliso okanye iinkonzo zayo, ezinokunceda ukwahlulahlula kukhuphiswano.
  • Inika ukuzithemba kunye nokukhuseleka kubathengi. Ke ngoko, uyabagcina abathengi.
  • Bavumela ingxelo yokuphucula imveliso rhoqo. Ngokuhlalutya iziphene okanye iziphene, kunokwenzeka ukufumanisa ukuba yintoni engahambanga kakuhle ukuze ingaphindi yenzeke okanye yenzeke kancinci.

Ngokubhekisa kweli nqaku lokugqibela, isenokuba yindlela elungileyo yokufumana iingxaki koomatshini okanye kwiinkqubo ezibonisa ulondolozo olubi okanye isidingo sokuphumeza. Iindlela zeRCM, ulondolozo ukulungisa, uthintelo, okanye ezinye iintlobo ze ulondolozo mveliso.

Iimpawu zolawulo lomgangatho

Entre ezona zinto zibalulekileyo kulawulo lomgangatho, kunokuqaqanjiswa oku kulandelayo:

  • Akunyanzelekanga kwezinye iimeko. Kwiimveliso ezithile ezingabalulekanga okanye iinkonzo akunyanzelekanga ukuba uziphumeze, nangona kuyacetyiswa. Sisigqibo seshishini, ngaphandle kokuba iimveliso zenziwe ekufuneka zihlangabezane nemigangatho yokhuseleko okanye zilungelelanise nemigangatho ethile. Umzekelo, ukuba wenza iimaski, ukuze uqinisekiswe ngemigangatho ye-EU, kufuneka badlulise uthotho lolawulo.
  • Ijolise kulwaneliseko lwabathengi kunye nokhuseleko. Kuba benza homogenize imveliso ukuze zonke iimveliso zilingane, kwaye ziqinisekise ukuba imigangatho esezantsi iyafezekiswa.
  • Ivumela ukumiliselwa okuhle isakhelo sokuphucula yeenkqubo zeshishini.
  • Ayisiyiyo yonke indawo. Oko kukuthi, awungekhe uphumeze inkqubo efanayo yolawulo lomgangatho okanye usebenzise izixhobo ezifanayo kumashishini ahlukeneyo. Inkampani nganye kufuneka iguqule indlela kwimveliso yayo.
  • Ivumela isatifikethi Iimveliso kunye neenkonzo. Ukuba kufuneka babambelele kumgangatho okanye isiqhelo, ke ulawulo lomgangatho ngoyena ndoqo wokuqinisekisa ukuba kuyafikelelwa.

Konke oko iya kuphinda ibuye ngendlela eveliswa ngayo, ukuba isebenza njani, kwaye iyakubonakaliswa kwimveliso nakwiziphumo zoqoqosho. Nangona kunjalo, akusoloko kusebenza okanye kunenzuzo ukumilisela inkqubo yolawulo lwemveliso kumashishini athile angabalulekanga, okanye apho umgangatho wesiphumo ungaxhomekekanga kwimveliso.

Faka isicelo sokulawula umgangatho

iinkqubo zolawulo lomgangatho

Xa inkampani ithatha isigqibo sokufaka ulawulo lomgangatho kwimveliso okanye kwinkonzo, kuya kufuneka lungelelanisa inkqubo kunye nezixhobo kakuhle ukubanakho ukwenza ulawulo.

Indlela

Kodwa kuya kufuneka thatha isigqibo malunga nendlela yokuphunyezwa kolawulo lomgangatho. Nokuba iyaphunyezwa ukufikelela kwimigangatho okanye ukuphucula umgangatho, ulawulo lunokwenziwa kwiibhetshi ezinkulu zeemveliso, kuzo zonke iimveliso zokugqibela okanye kwiisampulu ezithile.

por umzekelo, Kukho iinkqubo zokuveliswa kwemixokelelwano apho imveliso ezininzi ziveliswa khona kwaye ngekhe kube nenzuzo okanye kube nakho ukuvavanya ngalinye lamaqhekeza afunyenweyo. Kwimeko apho, iisampulu zikhethwe ngokungacwangciswanga kwilotho nganye kwaye uvavanyo lwenziwe. Ngamanye amaxesha, zinokwenziwa ngeebhetshi, okanye kuzo zonke iimveliso eziveliswe ngesiqinisekiso esikhulu kwiimveliso ezithile ezibaluleke kakhulu.

Kodwa khawufane ucinge ukuba iinkqubo zolawulo lomgangatho kubandakanya ukonakala okanye ukwaphula icandelo ivelisiwe. Kule meko akunakwenzeka ukuyenza kuwo onke amaqhekeza, okanye ungagqibela ngokutshabalalisa yonke into evelisiweyo. Inokwenzeka kuphela into yokufaka iimvavanyo kumthamo opheleleyo okanye kwiisampulu ezimele kakhulu xa iimvavanyo ezenziweyo zingonakalisi. Umzekelo, ayifani nokwenza iVickers okanye iRockwell yokuqina kobunzima, oluvavanyo oluyonakalisayo lwenxalenye, kunye novavanyo oluthile loxinzelelo, ukudinwa, ukuguquguquka, ubukrwada, njl., Kwezinye iimvavanyo ezibandakanya uhlalutyo olubonakalayo, usebenzisa Imitha X, njl.

Kwimeko yokungakwazi ukwenza uhlolo lolawulo lomgangatho kwi-100% yeeyunithi okanye iinkonzo, iindlela zeenkcukacha-manani okanye imigangatho enje I-MIL-STD-105E ukukhetha iisampulu kwaye usebenzise uhlalutyo lomgangatho kuzo. Umgangatho wezomkhosi wase-United States ayisiyiyo yodwa, kodwa yenye yezona zinto ziphucukileyo kusetyenziswa iitafile kunye neemodeli zemathematics zeesampulu.

Kwelinye icala, unokukhetha ukwenza ulawulo lomgangatho ngokwamanqanaba ahlukeneyo yemveliso okanye ekupheleni kwayo. Umzekelo, ukuba imoto iyahlanganiswa, kunokwenzeka ukuba ukukhangela okusemgangathweni kuyakufuneka kwenziwe kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo, kwaye emva koko kugqitywe ukukhangelwa komgangatho wokugqibela kwindibano emva kokugqitywa. Okungakumbi, ukuba amanye amaqhekeza okanye iinxalenye azenziwanga kumzi mveliso ngokwawo, kodwa zivela kumntu wesithathu. Kwimeko apho, umthengisi kufuneka enze olwakhe uvavanyo lomgangatho ngaphambi kokuhambisa imveliso. Umzekelo, umvelisi wamatayara kuya kufuneka awavavanye amavili ayakubekwa emotweni.

Xa sele nditshilo, akufuneki udide i-QA kunye novavanyo lophuhliso. Zizinto ezimbini ezahlukeneyo. Nangona banokufana, uvavanyo lophuhliso lwenziwa ngaphambi kokuqala kwemveliso emininzi. Umzekelo, ukulandela umzekelo wamatayara, umenzi wamatayara kufuneka ukuba avelise imodeli yekhompyuter, enemodeli eqingqiweyo kwitayara eqinisekisa ukubambelela okuhle kunye nokufuduka kwamanzi ukuthintela i-hydroplaning.

Inkqubo yophuhliso iya kubandakanya uthotho lweemodeli zekhompyuter zokuqinisekisa ukuba yonke into ichanekile, emva koko oko kubizwa ngokuba kuyakwenziwa isampulu yobunjineli, okanye uvavanyo olwenziweyo apho iimvavanyo ezininzi ziya kwenziwa phantsi kweemeko ezahlukeneyo. Nje ukuba kuvunyiwe, kuya kuqala ukuveliswa kwemixokelelwane, kwaye kuya kuba kule ndawo apho kusetyenziswa khona ulawulo lomgangatho.

Ulawulo lomgangatho weemveliso

Xa ulawulo lomgangatho isebenza kwimveliso, ke la manqaku alandelayo kufuneka athathelwe ingqalelo:

  1. Umzekelo: Kufuneka kuchazwe iqashiso okanye isampulu yokwenza uhlolo. Kuya kufuneka uthathele ingqalelo ukuba ngaba ziimvavanyo ezonakalisayo okanye akunjalo, kwaye ukuba azonakalisi ungalwandisa uluhlu lweesampulu ukufezekisa ukuthembeka okukhulu kwiziphumo. Ngokucacileyo, ukhetho kufuneka lube ngokungacwangciswanga okanye lungasekelwanga kwiiparameter ezinokuthi zithande iziphumo ezifunyenweyo, kuba kwimeko enjalo inyani yedatha iya kutshintsha. Ngokubanzi, ibhetshi enye okanye ezingaphezulu zikhethiweyo kwimveliso yemihla ngemihla, okanye ngesantya esisahlukileyo ukuze sikwazi ukukhuphela iziphumo kwimveliso eseleyo. Ukuba kuye kwakho utshintsho kwimathiriyeli eluhlaza, kumthengisi, okanye kwiinkqubo, ukonakala, njl.
  2. Ukubekwa emgangathweni: Kufuneka uchaze ezinye iiparameter kunye nezinto eziguqukayo ekufuneka zisetyenziswe njengomgangatho othile womgangatho. Kwimeko apho ufuna ukungqinisisa imveliso, ezo paramitha kunye namaxabiso uya kunikwa zona ngokwemigangatho ofuna ukuqinisekisa ngayo iimveliso zakho.
  3. Uhlalutyonje ukuba uneesampulu kunye neendlela ezisemgangathweni, ngoku kwenziwa iimvavanyo ezifanelekileyo ukumisela ukuba ziyahambelana noko kufunwayo kulawulo lomgangatho. Umzekelo, banokuhluka ukusuka kuvavanyo lomthwalo kwimveliso yemiqadi, kuhlalutyo lwebhayiloji kwishishini lokutya, njl. Olu hlalutyo luyakwenziwa ngexesha leenkqubo zemveliso ngokwazo, kwelinye lamanqanaba, okanye ekupheleni kwemveliso, njengoko kufuneka njalo.
  4. Idatha ifunyenweNjengomphumo wokufaka ulawulo lomgangatho, idatha elungileyo inokufunyanwa okanye ayinakufumaneka. Ukuba imveliso ihlangabezana nayo yonke imigangatho iya kulunga, kodwa ukuba ineziphene, ke ezinye iimveliso eziveliswe kwangolo suku lunye okanye kwibhetshi enye kufuneka zijongwe ukuze kujongwe ukuba kukusilela okuthile okanye kusasazekile kuyo yonke imveliso (kwaye imbi kakhulu kumatyala). Kuxhomekeka kumzi mveliso, kwezinye iimeko inokuphinda yenziwe ukulungisa iingxaki, kwaye kwezinye iimeko kufuneka ilahlwe okanye ilungiswe (ukuze ithengiswe kamva njengoko ihlaziyiweyo). Umzekelo, ukuba iityhubhu zepolymer ziveliswa kwaye azihlangabezani nemigangatho, zinokuxolelwa kwaye zigqithiselwe kwi-extruder kwakhona ukwenza ityhubhu entsha. Kodwa ukuba i-chip yenziwe, ayinakulungiswa kwaye kufuneka ilahlwe okanye yenze uhlengahlengiso oluthile ukuyithengisa.
  5. Uhlalutyo olulandelayo: Ukuba kufunyenwe iziphene, kunokwenziwa uphando ngesizathu sokungaphumeleli, kwaye ukuba banento efanayo. Ngolu lwazi, umgangatho wamacandelo exesha elizayo unokuphuculwa. Ukulungiselela le nto, iiparameter zeenkqubo zemveliso kufuneka zilungelelaniswe, izinto ezingaphekwanga ziphuculwe, njl. Umzekelo, kunokwenzeka ukuba ukuba ii-PCBs ziveliswe kunye nabathengisi, ziya kuba mfiliba. Kule meko, isizathu sinokuba i-tin solder yenziwa kubushushu obuphantsi kwaye iyaphuke okanye ayinamandla aneleyo. Unyango luya kukonyusa ubushushu bentsimbi (okanye mhlawumbi oko kubonisa ukuba isixhobo se-soldering asilunganga).
  6. Ukwenza izigqiboNgolu lwazi lungentla, amanyathelo anokuthathwa ukuphucula umgangatho. Ukuqhubeka nomzekelo wangaphambili, iqondo lokushisa elithengiswayo linokuphakanyiswa, okanye ukuba oku akunakwenzeka, faka enye into entsha endaweni yentsimbi.

Ulawulo lomgangatho iinkonzo

Xa ulawulo lomgangatho isebenza kwi inkonzo, emva koko inkqubo inokuba yinto engabonakaliyo okanye engabonakaliyo, kodwa ngendlela efanayo inamanyathelo aqhelekileyo anje ngala:

  1. Umzekelo: kule meko isampulu eza kuhlalutywa ayizukuba yimveliso ebonakalayo. Inokuba yinkonzo okanye inkqubo. Umzekelo, inokuba sisoftware ukuba yinkampani yophuhliso. Kule meko, luhlobo oluphuculweyo kuphela oluya kuvavanywa, kuba ezinye ziya kuba ziikopi ezichanekileyo eziya kuthunyelwa kubathengi okanye kubasebenzisi.
  2. Ukubekwa emgangathweni: yendlela elungileyo yolawulo lomgangatho, iiparameter kunye nezinto eziya kuhlolwa kufuneka zimiselwe. Ungazichaza zonke iinkcukacha ezinokuhlalutywa, ezinje ngesoftware, amaxesha okuhambisa, iinkqubo zomsebenzi, unxibelelwano nomthengi (umzekelo, ukuba yinkonzo yezobugcisa), njl.
  3. Thatha uvavanyo: ngokoku kungasentla, kufuneka usebenzise indlela kunye nezixhobo eziyimfuneko kwinkonzo yakho. Kule meko, iimvavanyo zihlala zingonakalisi, kuba ziinkonzo ezingaphathekiyo. Ke ngoko, inokwandiswa kuwo onke amatyala. Njengeemveliso, banokuthi okanye bangabi nethemba, kuxhomekeke ekubeni bahlangabezana nokulindelweyo okanye cha.
  4. Uhlalutyo lweziphumo-Idatha efunyenwe kwiisampulu zenkonzo inokuhlaziywa kwaye ifundwe kuyo. Ngale ndlela kuyakwazeka ukumisela okungahambanga kakuhle kwimeko nganye.
  5. Ukwenza izigqiboNgokusekwe kule datha, utshintsho lunokwenziwa ukuphucula umgangatho okanye ukulungiswa kwenkonzo. Umzekelo, ukuqhubeka kwimeko yesoftware, ibug okanye ukuba sesichengeni kunokufumaneka, ipaki yenziwa kwaye yahlaziywa ukuyilungisa.

Kule meko, phi ayiyiyo imveliso, akusoloko kunokwenzeka ukwenza ulawulo lomgangatho ngaphambi kokuhanjiswa kwenkonzo. Kule meko, inokukhokelela kukungoneliseki kwabasebenzisi okanye abathengi. Kwelinye icala, kwezinye iimeko inokuphinda iphuculwe ngaphambi kokuba kubonelelwe ngenkonzo.