Comanche nguJesús Maeso de la Torre

Ndiya phambili ukuba ndingumntu othanda kakhulu entshona, ndiyayithanda. UComanche uphumelele iMbasa yeSpartacus yeyona Noveli yeMbali yeMbali ka-2019 kwaye iyacetyiswa kakhulu.

Yinoveli, enenyaniso eyintsomi ngokuqinisekileyo, kwaye oku kukude kwithoni ye Ihashe eliCrazy kunye neCuster esisincoko esixela iinyani ngendlela ethembekileyo.

Apha ibali lijikelezwe kwiziganeko zokwenyani. Imishini, amadabi, njl njl, yinyani. Ubomi babalinganiswa abaphambili buyintsomi ngokucacileyo.

Ifumaneka eNew Spain kumashumi eminyaka okugqibela enkulungwane ye-XNUMX, xa uBukhosi baseSpain babulawula iMexico nento eyayiza kuba yiUnited States of America.

Ungaze xa sithetha bucala ngasekunene, sixela ixesha le-colonization yaseSpain, ngaphambi kokuba iikharavani ezidumileyo zabahlali esizibona kwiifilimu ziza kufika. Bendingazi ukuba amaSpanish ebekho, evula indlela, ekwalawula into eya kuba yi-United States of America, ukusukela kwinkulungwane yeshumi elinesine.

Lo mbhalo ovula inoveli, kwaye ovela kwenye incwadi, uchaza yonke into ngokugqibeleleyo kwaye endiye ndathandana nayo:

Xa abantu bokuqala baseMerika abathetha isiNgesi bangena kumazwe asemazantsi nasentshona kuMntla Merika, babesele benyathelwe kudala ngamaSpanish. Ngaphambi kokuba abahlali base-Anglo-Saxon bafike kwiikharavani zabo, amaCastilian ayesele eyakhe iicawa, iidolophu, iinqaba kunye nezixeko kwinkulungwane ngaphambili.

Ngaphambi kokuba umkhosi wamahashe waseYankee ujikeleze loo mimandla mikhulu ukuya kwisandi sikaGarry Owen, iidragons zesikhumba, okanye ukumkani, we-Viceroyalty yaseNew Spain, wayesele ehamba kwaye enobuchule kwezo ndlela zasendle.

Phambi kokuba kumiswe iinqaba zaseMelika esizibonileyo kwimiboniso bhanyabhanya kaJohn Ford, kukho oothunywashe abanoburhalarhume belizwi elibi, abagwayi ababawayo, uMkhosi wamahashe weSixhenxe kunye namaIndiya anoburhalarhume, amajoni angalawulekiyo kwiipresidios zaseSpain ayesele elawula amathafa, iintlango. imiwonyo kunye namathafa, ukusuka eLouisiana ukuya eTexas ukusuka eArkansas ukuya eColorado, kunye nokusuka eNew Mexico ukuya eCalifornia.

Kwaye ngaphambi kokuba ama-Navajos, ama-Apache kunye nama-Comanches ajongane nabakhweli baseMelika, babesele belwe amadabi anegazi ngokuchasene nemikhosi ecwangcisiweyo nengqongqo kaKumkani waseSpain.

UJosé Antonio Crespo, umbhali-mbali. Abemi baseSpain abalityelweyo baseMntla Melika

Iploti

I-Comanche igxile kubomi bukaMartín, inkwenkwe, unyana kaDragons de Cuera kwaye uba ngomnye wabo. Siza kumlandela ngomsebenzi wakhe wasemkhosini, iintshukumo zakhe, ubufundisi, kunye nemicimbi yothando.

Imisebenzi yakhe iya kumthatha ukuba anqumle ubukhosi baseSpain, abe nezivumelwano kunye neMasons kunye noBawo kwaye yonke le nto ibonakala ingadibaniyo yenza yonke ingqiqo emhlabeni, ngexesha lobukhosi baseSpain obusenamandla.

Le noveli yahlulwe yangamacandelo amathathu.

Ukufika kweedragons zesikhumba, kunye nokulwa kunye nokusebenzelana namaNdiya. Apha sibona indlela yokuphila yezizwe ezahlukeneyo, kunye nendlela ubukhosi baseSpain obabukoloniya kwaye boyisa ngayo lo mmandla.

Inxalenye yesibini igxile eItali. Apho sinokubona amayelenqe anamandla. Iintlola, ii-curia kunye nee-freemasons ezizama ukubumba umhlaba, ngamnye ukuze azuze.

Yonwabele kwaye undixelele kwi-comments.

Iidragons zesikhumba

Ukuba kukho into enomdla endiyifumeneyo iidragons zesikhumba zaseSpain.

Emngceleni zaziwa ngokuba "iidragons zesikhumba" ngenxa yokuba phezu kommiselo ibhatyi eluhlaza ebomvu, ibhulukhwe emfutshane eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka kunye ne-cobalt blue cape, zazikhusela ngengubo engenamikhono yomququ okanye umbala we-ocher, owenziwe ngamanqanaba asixhenxe e-tanned. ngethwathwa, engenakuchaphazeleka kwiintolo nemikhonto yaseIndiya.

Bazikhusela kuhlaselo lwaseIndiya ngommiselo weToledo ikrele lomkhosi waseSpain, umkhonto, ikhaka, umpu, imipu emibini, amabhanti ekhatriji kunye nebhegi ye-suede egxalabeni, kunye nokuchongwa kweyunithi yabo. Banxibe i-bowtie emnyama entle, iibhutsi zeqatha okanye iingubo kunye nomnqwazi obanzi weCordovan ohonjiswe ngosiba olubomvu. Bayikhusela ingalo yasekhohlo ngekhaka elihonjiswe kabini elingqukuva apho iingalo zaseCastile zazihonjiswe ngemibala eqaqambileyo. Igongqongqo ngalinye lalinamahashe amathandathu, ithole leesile, nemeyile, yaye lalinabakhonzi ababini baseIndiya abangabagadi, nabendlu, nabakhokeli.

Babesoyikwa ngenxa yobungqongqo kunye nokuziphatha kwabo. Zininzi iimbekiselo ezibhaliweyo ezisemthethweni malunga neemfazwe zabo kunye nokulwa.

Ngomhla wama-26 ku-Epreli, ngo-1776, iidragons zakhe ezingama-42 ezizikweri zachasa iiyure ezi-5 ngokuchasene nama-Apache angama-300 ebangela ukurhoxa kwabo emva kokungaphumeleli kwemizamo yokwaphula ukwakheka kwabo.

Nokuba imilo kunye neGreenhorn ibhaliwe.

Ezo zindlavini aziyazi ukuba yintoni imbeko novelwano, mhlekazi. Umlo wethu ngokuchasene nezo demon ufanelekile, kuba uhloniphekile. Yimpucuko echasene nobuqaba. Kubo, imfazwe kukuphanga, ukubulawa kwabamsulwa, ukunyhashwa kwawo onke amalungelo, ukugculelwa kwentlungu yethuku elibuthathaka nelibi ngaphandle kokuzisola. Ngaba unokwenza umlo onengqiqo nocokisekileyo, mhlekazi?

babengcungcuthekiswe ngendlela eyoyikekayo kaComanche. Ababini babebotshelelwe emnqamlezweni kwizigodo ezizimeleyo kwaye, emva kokususa iindlebe kunye nokususa inxalenye yesikhumba sabo, umlilo wawubekwe phantsi kwezitho zabo zangasese, ezitshiswe ngokukrakra. Abanye ababini babexhonywe bejonge phantsi, betshisa iintloko neenwele ngendlela eyoyikekayo.

Ngaphandle kokulibazisa wajonga iindlela, iikhosi zemilambo kunye nentaba idlula ukuya kunxweme lwePasifiki, ilandelwa nguAlvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Vázquez de Coronado, Antonio de Espejo okanye uJuan de Oñate.

I-Placet Hispaniae yayilawula emantla elizwekazi. Kwaye ngaphandle kwendawo yeeKoloni ezilishumi elineSithathu ezisandula ukuzimela ngenxa yoncedo lwaseSpain, abanye bebengabakwaCrown, ukusuka kwiGulf of Mexico ukuya kwiiGreat Lakes, kwaye ukusuka eMississippi ukuya eCalifornia.

Ngokuqinisekileyo bebeya kubafanela inqaku bona ngokwabo.

Izifo zehlabathi elidala

Kule noveli sele sibona iilali ezitshatyalaliswe yingqakaqha esoyikekayo kunye nesinye isifo.

Kwiminyaka engamashumi amabini eyadlulayo umntu waseDominic, uFray Domingo de Soria, waye waqhelisela phantse imimangaliso yokunyanga ingqakaqha eSantiago, eChile, etofa ngesilivere kunye neglasi yecannula ubovu obusuka kwizigulana ezosulelekileyo ukuya kubantu abasempilweni, ababegonyelwe ubomi bonke.

Yaye kukuba ekubeni baziswa kuhambo lwesi-2 lukaChristopher Columbus, banda okomlilo wedobo, kangangokuba ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX babesele bephethwe lolu hlobo lwesifo. Oku kubonakala kukuhle kakhulu kwincwadi Uloyiso lwebhayoloji nguNoble David Cook

Phanda

Izihloko endifuna ukuya kuzo kuphando, ukuphanda kunye nokwandisa ulwazi.

  • UHernando de Soto
  • Bathetha ulwimi olungenakuchazwa ngendlela efanayo nesiAztec: isiNahuatl
  • IiComanches zazizibiza ngokuba ngamaNumunuu "abantu," kananjalo "abantu beenyoka," okanye amaKohmants, "abakhweli-mahashe abahlaselayo."
  • Babezingela imivundla nemivundla ngamagqudu, izinti ezigobileyo ezichanekileyo.
  • Comanche inkosi Ecueracapa okanye Iron Shirt
  • Iqela lezinja zamaqhawe, ngaphambi kokuqalisa ipalamente, ladanisa umdaniso wokhokho woMoya, abantu baseIndiya ababewubiza ngokuba yiHako, apho imimoya yayibizwe khona.
  • Yiloo nto i-Comanches ibiza ngokuba ngumbhobho we-calumet ongenakonakala. Isetyenziselwa kuphela ukuvala izivumelwano zoxolo, kungoko igama layo "yipayipi yoxolo, okanye i-armistice."
  • Umgaqo weMasonic odluliselwe kuthi ngumseki wethu, uDuke Philip de Wharton, kunye neThe Treatise on the Torelance of Voltaire.
  • Sibakhulu ngaphandle kwekratshi kwaye sithobekile ngaphandle kokungabi nasiseko (kubonakala ngathi yeyekhowudi yeMasonic)

Ukongeza kunye nokubaluleka okukhethekileyo ziihambo zikaJuan Bautista de Anza zihamba ngendlela yakhe kwilizwekazi elitsha.

Ndishiya ulwazi malunga nobomi bakhe kunye needayari zakhe zokuhamba zexabiso eliphezulu lembali.

  1. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Bautista_de_Anza
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20150910072132/http://anza.uoregon.edu/siteindex.html
  3. https://web.archive.org/web/20150619221135/http://anza.uoregon.edu/people/name.html
  4. https://www.nps.gov/juba/index.htm

Iincwadi ezinxulumeneyo

  • Abemi baseSpain abalityelweyo baseMntla Melika. UJosé Antonio Crespo-Francés kunye noValero

Imithombo

Izimvo ezi-2 kwi "Comanche nguJesús Maeso de la Torre"

  1. Ewe, inxalenye yomda, yokukhwela, i-Comanches, i-Apache kunye needragons zesikhumba zibonakala zinomdla kakhulu kum.
    Inxalenye ye-Alaskan ayibonakali kum ukuba negalelo elikhulu.

    Inxalenye yembali eYurophu kunye nayo yonke into malunga ne-Freemasons, njl, iye yandidika.

    Olunye ulwazi oluthe kratya lukwalahlekile malunga nendlela iMfazwe yaseMelika yokuzimela eyiphembelele ngayo loo mida.

    Qaphela: 6,5 / 10

    impendulo

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