UkuZalwa

isityalo sokuvelisa
NGUMATTHEW F HILL

Yintoni ukuzalwa ngokutsha

La ukuzalwa ngokutsha Yinkqubo apho amandla ombane kunye nobushushu anokufumaneka ngaxeshanye. Oko kuyenza ukuba ibe yenye indlela efanelekileyo yokunikezelwa kwamandla kwimisebenzi efana nejoni.

Xa kuthelekiswa nomvelisi olula amandla oomatshini kunye nobushushu okanye amandla ombane, Kuvelisi wokuvelisa zombini ziyafezekiswa kwaye ubushushu obuvelisiweyo busetyenziswa ngaphambi kokuba budluliselwe kwindalo esingqongileyo. Iyafana kwi-MGU-H yeFomula 1, okanye kwiinkqubo ezithile zokubuyisa amandla ezifana ne-turbo, njl.

Ngale ndlela, amandla ombane avela kwimoto Ungathatha ithuba Olunye usetyenziso, kwaye ubushushu obuveliswe ngexesha lenkqubo yokudala buya kusetyenziselwa ezinye izinto eziluncedo. Kwinjini yomlilo yangaphakathi okanye ijini, ubushushu bupheliswa ngaphandle kokusebenzisa.

Izinto eziluncedo nezingalunganga

Phakathi izibonelelo zokuzibandakanya zi:

  • Ukonga umbane, ngaphandle kwezinye iingcebiso. Kungenxa yokonyuka kokusebenza ukuze uthathe ithuba lobushushu obuchithakeleyo ukuyiguqula ibe ngamandla.
  • Ukonga uqoqosho. Ukusebenza ngokukuko kukongela ukonga ipetroli, ethi ekuhambeni kwexesha isuse iindleko zale nkqubo yokuzibandakanya.
  • Ukuveliswa kwenqaku lokuqala kukwa neziphumo uhlonipha ngakumbi okusingqongileyo. Ukuba unenkqubo esebenza ngokukuko, uchitha amandla amancinci kwaye icocekile, kwaye ngokuvelisa okuninzi ngentlawulo encinci uyonga nakwizibaso nezingcolisayo. Ukongeza, i-fuel esebenza ngokukuko kwaye ingangcolisi kakhulu, enje ngegesi, inokusetyenziswa.
  • Inkululeko enkulu kunye nokhuseleko lweenkqubo zonikezelo lwamandla ombane. Njengokuba bevelisa amandla abo ombane, banokuxhomekeka ngakumbi kuthungelwano nakwiintambo zombane, kwaye kwimeko yokuphela kombane, ukucinywa kombane omncinci, umthwalo omninzi kunye nezinye iingxaki zobuchwephesha, ziya kuqhubeka nokusebenza.
  • Ukusuka kwindawo yangaphambili nayo iyalandela awuyi kuxhomekeka kakhulu kwimigca yamandla, ecutha ukusetyenziswa kwamandla kwezityalo ezinokubakho njenge-fossil fuel okanye ngokukhupha okuphezulu kwe-CO2. Ewe kunjalo, ngokunciphisa ukusetyenziswa kwale migca, ukuhla okumbalwa okanye ukuhla kwenzekile kumgca.
  • Ngokuveliswa kwindawo enye apho amandla eza kusetyenziswa khona, umthwalo kunye nokuhamba ixesha elide kuncitshisiwe, kwaye oko kuthetha ukuba ilahleko encinci ngenxa yempembelelo yeJoule. Oku kwandisa ukusebenza ngakumbi nangakumbi.

Nangona kunjalo, bubuchwephesha obudala, kwaye sele isetyenzisiwe ukusukela kwisiqingatha sokuqala senkulungwane yama-XNUMX ziinkampani ezininzi ukuvelisa umbane wazo ngombane omncinci okanye oomatshini bokwenza i-hydraulic turbines kwaye ke bazimele ngendlela ethembekileyo kunokuxhomekeka iinethiwekhi zombane kunye nemigca ayizinzanga kakhulu ngelo xesha. Ngesi sizathu nangezinye izizathu, njengezinye iinkqubo, kuhlala kunjalo ngxaki kungenjalo iya kuba ifezekile, kwaye akunjalo:

  • Enye yeengxaki ezinkulu kule teknoloji kukuba iyabiza kwaye inzima. Ke oko kuthetha ukuba utyalomali ngakumbi, nangona ukonga umbane kuhlala kulungisa loo ndleko yokuqala ekuhambeni kwexesha.
  • Iindleko zokulungisa kunye nokulungisa zinokuphakama, ngenxa yenqaku langaphambili.
  • Ukongeza, ukuvelisa amandla kwinqanaba elincinci, xa kuthelekiswa nezityalo ezikhulu, kukhokelela kwiindleko eziphezulu, ezinye izinto ziyalingana.

Njengoko ubona, yonke inkqubo inayo izinto eziluncedo nezingeloncedo ekufuneka zivavanyiwe phambi kokuthatha isigqibo.

Ukwahlula

Ukuveliswa kwezityalo kunokuba njalo Hlela ngokwemiqathango eyahlukeneyo...

Ngokobushushu benjini esetyenzisiweyo

Ngokubanzi, ngalo lonke ixesha kuzanywa ukubeka isityalo sokuzibandakanya kudidi oluthile, ireferensi ihlala isenziwa uhlobo injini ubushushu isetyenziswe njengomthombo wamandla.

Umphunga weinjini

Injini yokufudumeza esetyenziselwa izixhobo zamandla ashushu zihlala ziiturbines zomphunga, oko kukuthi, umvelisi wombane oqhelekileyo oya kushukuma ujikeleze amandla ayo ojikelezayo. uxinzelelo lomphunga ifunyenwe kumthombo wobushushu (kwibhoyila yamalahle, igesi okanye ukutshiswa kwepetroli, i-biomass, inyukliya, ...).

Nangona kunjalo, olu hlobo lweinjini yomoya ayixhaphakanga kangako Ukulungelelaniswa. Olu hlobo lwee-injini zomoya lunokusetyenziswa xa kukho ubushushu obuyintsalela obuvela komnye umthombo wemveliso okanye i-injini, usebenzisa ithuba lokuvelisa ukuhamba kweinjini yomoya.

Ngolu hlobo lwezinye iindlela, i amandla afakiweyo Ziphezulu, zii-MW (Megawatts) ezininzi kunye neendleko zokufakwa kwazo zixhomekeke kumbane ofakiweyo, nangona usezantsi xa kuthelekiswa nezinye iinjini ezijikelezayo okanye ezidibeneyo. Ngobuqhophololo banazo ukuba izibonelelo zinzima ngandlela ithile.

Ngaphakathi kweejenereyitha zomphunga omphunga, aliqela Imijikelezo Ngexesha lenkqubo:

  1. Ufakelo lomphunga woxinzelelo lomphunga. Umphunga oveliswe kwibhoyila uyandiswa kwiturbine ukuya kuxinzelelo lokusebenza lomsebenzisi kwaye umphunga wokukhupha ovela kwiturbine bubushushu obuluncedo benkqubo yokuzibandakanya.
  2. Ukujiya ukufakelwa kweinjini yomphunga ngokutsala. Umphunga uyandiswa kwiinjini yomoya ukuya kuxinzelelo olungezantsi komoya ngokusebenzisa isixhobo esivuthayo. Oku kwandisa ukutsiba kwe-enthalpy kwiturbine kunye namandla ayo.

Iinjini zerhasi

Kolu hlobo lwee-injini zomoya, endaweni yokusebenzisa umphunga njengakwimeko yangaphambili, i sebenzisa irhasi. Ngokwesiqhelo irhasi yokukhupha evela kwiiinjini zomoya ezazikwiqondo lobushushu eliphezulu okanye kwiinjini zomlilo. Ukwenza isifaniso, kufana ne-turbo esezimotweni okanye i-MGU-H kwiFomula 1, ethatha ithuba kwiigesi ezinamandla aphuma kumandla okuqhuba i-turbocharger ngaphambi kokuyivumela ukuba ikhutshelwe emoyeni. Oku akwenzeki kwiinjini zomoya, apho kanye xa kuye kwakho umlilo, iigesi zikhutshwa ngaphandle kokusebenzisa kakhulu ...

Umjikelo odibeneyo

Inkqubo yokudityaniswa komjikelo odibeneyo

Ku indibaniselwano yombane yomjikelo odibeneyo Imijikelezo emibini ye-thermodynamic idityaniswe kwinkqubo yemveliso yamandla efanayo. Kwelinye icala, kusetyenziswa umphunga wamanzi kwelinye icala umsebenzi wemveliso yegesi yomlilo. Umzekelo, i-boiler yamalahle ingasetyenziselwa ukufudumeza amanzi kunye nokuvelisa umphunga woxinzelelo oluphezulu oqhuba i-turbine yomvelisi wombane kwaye, kwelinye icala, igesi evela kwitshimini imveliso yomlilo ukuyisebenzisa ukuze ivelise amandla ngakumbi.

Oko kuya phezulu ngempumelelo kunye nokusetyenziswa kwepetroli. Kuba kwisityalo sokuziqhelanisa nokutya kunokwenzeka ukuba uthathe ithuba lokujikeleza malunga nama-25 okanye ama-35% (isivuno) sepetroli etshisiweyo (ezo zepetroli azisebenzi kakuhle kunalezo zedizili). Eminye ilahlekile ngohlobo lobushushu ngenxa yokukhuhlana kwamalungu kunye nezinye ilahleko.

Ngokudibanisa amanani anokuphakanyiswa ngaphezulu kwe-50% kwaye ade afikelele isivuno Iipesenti ezingama-85. Kuninzi kakhulu, kuthathelwa ingqalelo ukuba umatshini ogqibeleleyo unentsebenzo ye-100%, kodwa yinto yethiyori engekhoyo ngokwenyani, wonke umatshini unelahleko nokuba incinci kangakanani.

Ukubeka Umzekelo iyasebenza ngakumbi, ukuba ujonga iinjini zepetroli zomjikelo we-F1 Otto kunye nomoya ojikeleze umhlaba, kuphumelele ukusetyenziswa kwe-30% kwezona meko zintle. Oko kuthetha ukuba i-70% yamandla epetroli ilahlekile njengobushushu be-frictional kwaye yi-30% kuphela ehanjiswa njengamandla okutsala imoto. Ngokufika kwe-injini ye-hybrid eneenkqubo ezinje nge-MGU-H kunye ne-MGU-K, ukusebenza ngokukuko kwe-50% kufezekisiwe kwiinjini ze-turbo ezidityaniswe nombane ...

Ukuba izibaso ezisetyenziswa kukuzibandakanya zisebenza ngakumbi kunalezo zesintu, ezinje ngeegesi ezithile, okanye ngobungozi bendalo, Ingca (inkunkuma engenakusetyenziswa ngenye indlela), amandla anokuveliswa ngefuthe elisezantsi lokusingqongileyo.

Kwaye ukufumana ukusebenza okuphezulu kuthetha ukuba unenkqubo esebenzayo ngakumbi, ke, ukuvelisa amandla ngakumbi nge ukukhutshwa okungaphantsi kwe-CO2, into ethi ngamaxesha engxakeko yemozulu ebalekayo ibalulekile.

Injini yokutsha yangaphakathi

Okokugqibela, ngaphakathi kweendidi ngohlobo lwe-injini, nawe unokufana Buyisela kwakhona iinjini zomlilo zangaphakathi, njengalezo zeemoto okanye izithuthuthu. Banikwe amagama ngenxa yokuba basebenzisa ipetroli engamanzi efakwe kwiisilinda zabo ukwenza uqhushumbo okanye ukutshisa kwangaphakathi okuya kuthi kuvelise intshukumo ebuyisayo yompiston oza kuthi uqhotyoshelwe kwi-crankshaft ukuguqula intshukumo ebuyayo ejikelezayo nge-axis.

Ezi moto zinokuba ze iintlobo ezahlukeneyo, ezinjengezo zomjikelo we-Otto (ipetroli), okanye ezo zomjikelo we-Diesel (idizili). Nokuba yeyiphi na ipetroli abayisebenzisayo, kwaye naluphi na uhlobo lwebhentshi le-engile abanalo, intshukumo iya kuhlala iyenye. Oko kwahlulahlula kwii-rotary, njengeejets jet, okanye iiinjini zeWankel.

Ngokolandelelwano lwesizukulwana kunye nokusetyenziswa

Ukuzimasa Ukulandelelana kwesizukulwana kunye nokusetyenziswa kwamandla, bane:

  • Iintloko okanye iinkqubo zokuthambisa: yile mijikelezo apho injini yokutsha yangaphakathi iya kuba yinto enika amandla kwinkqubo yokuzibandakanya ukufumana ubushushu nombane osetyenziswa ngumsebenzisi. Oko kukuthi, yinkqubo yesiqhelo.
  • Inkqubo yomsila okanye yeebhotile: ubushushu benkunkuma okanye ipetroli isetyenziselwa ukufumana ubushushu kunye nombane, oko kukuthi, luhlobo lwenkqubo yokubuyisa amandla. Yile ndlela kunokwenzeka ngayo ukuba kuveliswe amandla ngokusebenzisa inkunkuma eya kuchithwa kwenye nayiphi na enye injini.

Ngokunxibelelana enye

Ngokunxibelelana enye unokuba:

  • Iindawo ezikwanti okanye iziqithiInkqubo yokuzibandakanya ayizukuqhagamshelwa kwigridi yombane yoluntu, kodwa kufuneka ibe nomlawuli wayo wombane ovelisiweyo kunye nezihlandlo zamandla ombane avelisiweyo. Oku kufana nomvelisi ohleli yedwa.
  • Iinkqubo eziHlangeneyo okanye eziDibeneyoInkqubo yokuziqhagamshela iqhagamshelwe ngokuhambelana nombane wombane woluntu, ke umsebenzisi uya kuba nakho ukufumana ukubonelelwa kokubini kwigridi nakwijenereyitha. Oko kongeza ukhuseleko oluphindwe kabini ukuqinisekisa ukubonelelwa kwimeko apho enye yezi nkqubo isilelayo.

Isityalo sokuzibandakanya

Isityalo sokuzibandakanya, ngoku ukuba ukwazi ukukhangela iintlobo zeenjini kunye neenkqubo zokusebenza, ziya kubandakanya oku kulandelayo izinto eziphambili ukulungiselela ukusebenza kwayo:

  • Umthombo wamandla aphambiliNgoyena mafutha aphambili, anje ngepetroli, idizili, igesi yendalo, i-biomass, amalahle, njl.
  • Injini okanye ibhoyila: kwimeko yokuba ipetroli ifossil, i-injini iyafuneka ukwenza umlilo. Banokukhetha. Kwaye ukuba igesi, amalahle okanye i-biomass iyasetyenziswa, ibhoyila apho kusetyenziswe ipetroli.
  • I-Turbine okanye i-generator (inkqubo yokusebenzisa amandla oomatshini)amandla afunyenwe kwinto edlulileyo kufuneka agqithiswe ukusuka kwishafti esiya kwiturbine okanye ngerhasi ejikeleza ngemibhobho kwaye ihambisa iirabha ezenziwe ngohlobo lwamavili zomvelisi okanye injini. Ngokushukuma okuvelisiweyo, amandla ombane afunyanwa kwinto engenye okanye ukubhijelwa kweinjini okanye umvelisi.
  • Inkqubo ubushushu: kunokwenzeka ukuhambisa iigesi ezivuthayo ezivela kwizinto eziphelayo okanye ezo zivela kwibhoyila ngokusebenzisa ukutshintshisa ukushisa, okwenza ukuba badlule kwi-coil ekwazi ukutshisa amanzi okanye enye igesi ukuze bakwazi ukusebenzisa loo mandla kumjikelezo omtsha ukuvelisa amandla ombane kwezinye iiturbines zesekondari.
  • Inkqubo yefriji: izixhobo zokufudumeza ubushushu okanye iinkqubo zinokusebenza njengokupholisa injini. Nangona kunjalo, kunokubakho ezinye iinkqubo ezinjengezipholisi zokupholisa ukuqhubela phambili ukupholisa irhasi okanye umphunga ngaphambi kokuyikhulula emoyeni.
  • Iinkqubo abancedisayo: Kukho ezinye iinkqubo ezincedisayo kwisityalo sokuzibandakanya okanye isityalo, njengeenkqubo zokucoca amanzi, ukulawula uxinzelelo lwe-steam, njl. Ngokwesiqhelo ilawulwa ziinkqubo zekhompyuter ezinesoftware ethile ukwenza umsebenzi usebenze.
  • ISuministro eléctrico: Okokugqibela, amandla ombane avelisiweyo aya ngqo kumsebenzisi okanye kumsebenzisi. Kuya kufuneka uhambe ngombane ukuze uyiphathe okanye uguqule umbane ukuze uhlengahlengise umbane. Ukuba akukho mthengi, kunokubakho inkqubo yokugcina, njengebhetri enkulu.

Yile ndlela esebenza ngayo isityalo sokuzibandakanya kwasekuqaleni de kufumaneke amandla ombane, ehamba kuwo onke la manqanaba.

Ukuzibandakanya eSpain

Ukulungelelaniswa kwenkqubo yoshishino

Ukuzibandakanya kusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwi I-European Union, kwaye ke naseSpain Olu hlobo lwezityalo ezivelisa amandla aphezulu lukhuthaziwe. Izicwangciso zenziwe ukonyusa ngokuthe ngcembe ezi ntlobo zezityalo ukuze zifikelele phantse kwi-20% yemveliso yesizwe yombane ngo-2020.

Yindlela elungileyo yokuvelisa umbane esebenzayo nezinzileyo ngaphakathi kwamazwe asenako ukuxhomekeka okuphezulu kwizibaso kwaye akanazo izityalo ezininzi zenyukliya okanye ezihlaziyiweyo. Ukuvelisa amandla anje akulungelanga okusingqongileyo kuphela, kuya kuba namandla aphantsi ukunciphisa iindleko zemveliso kunye nexabiso lokugqibela lamandla.

Ukongeza, ukuba ezi zityalo zikufuphi namashishini amakhulu okanye amaziko asezidolophini apho kusetyenziswa khona amandla, ilahleko enkulu kuthintelwe nguJoule ukusebenza kweentambo zombane ezinde, kwaye kwi-AC sisiphumo esincinci kakhulu kunaseDC. Kwaye ukuba unikezelwa kumgama omfutshane, ukunciphisa okunokwenzeka kunikezelo okanye ukucima kombane okubangelwa ziingxaki kumgca wombane, okanye kwinethiwekhi, ngenxa yeemeko zemozulu kunye nezinye iintlobo, ziyancitshiswa.

Konke oko izisa izibonelelo ezingakumbi kwilaphu laseSpain ezenza ukuba zikhuphisane ngakumbi kumazwe aphesheya. Ukusuka kwi-353MW yoqhaqho oluveliswe ngo-1990 sonyukile kwiminyaka elishumi (2000) saya kutsho phantse kwi-5000MW kwaye ngo-2008 sigqithe kwi-6000MW, kodwa ukurhoxiswa kwezinye zezityalo ezifikelele esiphelweni sobomi bazo okanye ebezilinde ukulungiswa ziye zakufezekisa oku Inani lehle laya kuthi ga kwi-4500MW namhlanje.

Nangona kunjalo, kuninzi ekufuneka kwenziwe, njengoko inyathelo sele lithathiwe ayonelanga… Kwaye eYurophu imalunga ne-125.000MW okwangoku ukusuka kwindalo, xa kuthelekiswa ne-82.400MW e-United States. Amazwe aphambili kwi-EU yiJamani, ene-37.000MW, elandelwa yi-Itali, iNetherlands, iPoland, iFinland neSpain.

Ukuzibandakanya kokusebenza okuphezulu

Gcina ukhumbula ukuba ukuhlangana kuyenzeka Ixabiso le-MWh (Megawatt ngeyure) iphakathi kwe- € 5.5 kunye ne- € 8 engaphantsi kokusebenzisa eminye imithombo yemveliso. Kwaye oku kuguquka kubangelwa kukusebenza kwesityalo sokuzibandakanya. Ukuba unenye yokusebenza ngokukuko, ulondolozo luya kuba lukhulu kwaye izinto ezikhutshwayo ziphantsi.

Ye-Cukufezekisa ukusebenza okuphezulu ekudibaneni, imijikelezo edibeneyo isetyenzisiwe endaweni yokwahlulahlula, njengoko sele ufunde kumacandelo angaphambili. Ngale ndlela, kunokwenzeka ukuba ukhuphe ukusebenza okukhulu kumafutha asetyenzisiweyo.

Ukuzihlaziya nokuzala

uthuthu. Inkunkuma yokuzibandakanya

Ukuphuculwa kokusebenza okuphezulu nako ukunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwe-CO2 kunye nenkunkuma iveliswe phantsi kweemeko ezilinganayo xa kuthelekiswa nezityalo zamandla ashushu ezisebenzisa iifosili. Ukongeza, ukuba kusetyenziswa i-biomass endaweni yamafutha emveli, ikwanceda ekutshabalaliseni inkunkuma evela kwamanye amashishini (izikhumba, oonokrwece okanye amathambo asuka kwimizi-mveliso yokutya, inkunkuma eyomileyo eqinileyo evela kwizityalo zokucoca amanzi, njl.).

Ngokumalunga nenkunkuma evela kwisityalo sokuzibandakanya ngokwaso, ihlala ifana naso nasiphi na esinye isityalo se-thermal, nangona sikwinqanaba elincinci kwi-MW nganye evelisiweyo. Ezi ntsalela zidlula eluthuthwini lomlilo kunye neegesi. Nokuba uthuthu lungasetyenziswa kwakhona kwamanye amashishini. Umzekelo, ezinye Ukuqiniswa kwendalo bangasebenzisa uthuthu oluvela kwamanye amashishini njengempahla eluhlaza.

Ukudityaniswa kweBiomass

ukuvelisa kunye ne-biomass, ipetroli kunye nokurisayikilisha

La Ingca Luhlobo lwepetroli eqhubeka isetyenziselwa izityalo zamandla ashushu. Yinto eqokelelwa yimisebenzi yabantu okanye inkunkuma yemizi-mveliso enokusetyenziselwa amandla xa ngaphambili yayichithwa kwindawo yokulahla inkunkuma. Ezi nkunkuma zinokutshiswa ngqo ukuze zifumane umthombo wobushushu kwaye zivelise amandla okanye zitshintshwe zenziwe ipetroli ngokusebenzisa iinkqubo ezithile eziza kusetyenziselwa ukutshisa kunye nemveliso yamandla elandelayo.

Imizekelo ye-biomass Zizo:

  • Ukuthenwa kwemithi kunye nezityalo, amagqabi omileyo, iindiza, njl.
  • Intsalela yendalo okanye iimveliso ezivela kwimizi-mveliso, ezinje ngamanzi emifuno afunyenwe ekufumaneni
  • i-oyile, iziqhamo ezixobukile kunye namandongomane exotyulwe kwiifektri, ukuchwela kunye nokuhlala kwamaplanga, intsalela yamatye okusila, ifanitshala, njl.
  • Ukuhlala okuqinileyo ngenxa yonyango lwamanzi amdaka. Nokuba iigesi zokuvumba ezivela ekuvundisweni kwenkunkuma yelindle okanye ilindle lemfuyo linokuvelisa iigesi ezinje ngemethane.
  • Ukurisayikilisha iioyile.
  • Izityalo zivunwa ngokukodwa ukufumana ii-biofuels (iinkozo kunye neembewu), ezinjenge biodiesel, bioethanol, njl.

Ngaphandle kwetyala lokugqibela, kuzo zonke ezidlulileyo akukho mfuneko yokuvelisa ipetroli ethile, ukusebenzisa nje iimveliso ezivela kwezinye izinto ezinokuthi ziphele zilahlwe kude, kwaye okunokwenzeka kube kungcolisa.

Ukudityaniswa kwerhasi yendalo

Iinjini yegesi yokuziphilisa

Endaweni yokusebenzisa ezinye i-fuels fuels or biomass, ukuzaliswa kungenziwa kwakhona igesi yendalo njengamafutha. I-European Union ijolise ekunciphiseni ii-greenhouse gases (GHG) phakathi kwama-80% kunye nama-95% ngo-2050 xa kuthelekiswa nonyaka ka-1990, kwaye oku kusakhangela iindlela ezininzi, kubandakanya negesi yendalo.

Inyathelo lokuqala kukunyusa ivuseleleke ukuya kwi-27% yemveliso kummandla we-EC ukunciphisa ukunciphisa kwe-GHG ngama-40% ngo-2030. kuba:

  • Ikhupha i-CO2 encinci kunamanye amafutha, ke iyanceda ukunciphisa ukusebenza kwendlu eluhlaza, kwaye iphucula umgangatho womoya.
  • Ayikhuphi amasuntswana xa isitsha.
  • Ukunciphisa i-carbon monoxide emissions yi-80%.
  • Ukulondolozwa kwezoqoqosho nako kuya kuba yinto ephambili, kuba iya kunciphisa iindleko ngama-50% xa kuthelekiswa nepetroli kunye nama-30% xa kuthelekiswa nedizili.
  • Ukutsha kwegesi kukhupha ungcoliseko lwengxolo oluncinci kunezinye iinjini zangaphakathi zomlilo.

Ukukunika umbono, usebenzisa igesi yendalo kuphela ngenethiwekhi yeNedgia Cegas evunyelwe ukukhupha Iitoni ezingama-1.800.000 ze-CO2 zingaphantsi.

Ukudityaniswa komjikelo wokudityaniswa

Sele ukwazi ukufundisisa ukuba yintoni ifayile ye- Umjikelo odibeneyo, eyenza ukuba ukudaleka kube lula ngakumbi kwaye kuvelise isibaso esingcono. Njengoko besenditshilo, oku kukwavumela ukunciphisa ukukhutshwa kunye nokufumana amandla ngakumbi ngendlela yexabiso eliphantsi. Kwaye konke enkosi ngokusebenzisa imijikelezo edibeneyo yokusebenzisa ngcono ubushushu.

Ukuba ungumntu ongaphumliyo njengathi kwaye ufuna ukusebenzisana ekugcinweni nasekuphuculweni kweprojekthi, unokwenza umnikelo. Yonke imali iya kuthenga iincwadi kunye nezixhobo zokuvavanya kunye nokwenza izifundo