Yintoni elungileyo yokuziphatha efanelekileyo?

Yintoni imigaqo yokuziphatha ka-Adela Cortina elungileyo, isincoko esihle sokuqalisa ngokuziphatha

Ukusukela kwiminyaka emininzi yokufikisa ndacetyiswa Ukuziphatha kweAmador nguFernando Savater, Ndinobuthathaka obuthile beencwadi ezithetha ngokuziphatha. Ndifumana iingxaki zobomi bemihla ngemihla esihlala sijamelana nokuphazamiseka okumangalisayo.

Kulo mqulu (yithenge), le ncwadi igxininisa ekuchazeni oko ikuko imigaqo yokuziphatha, indlela esebenza ngayo kubomi bemihla ngemihla, ingakumbi ukufuna ulonwabo.

UAdela Cortina ngunjingalwazi wokuziphatha kunye nefilosofi yezopolitiko kwiYunivesithi yaseValencia kunye nelungu leRoyal Academy yezeNzululwazi ngezeMilo nezoPolitiko. Kwaye le ncwadi iyimfuneko.

Ukuzama ukuqinisekisa ubuncinci bobulungisa kuye wonke umntu yimeko ebalulekileyo ukuze uluntu lusebenze ngokwentando yesininzi, abemi abanakucelwa ukuba babe nomdla kwingxoxo-mpikiswano yoluntu, ekuthatheni inxaxheba koluntu, ukuba ngaba uluntu lwabo alukhathali nokuba lubabonelele ngobuncinci besidima phila ngesidima. Olu luhlahlo-lwabiwo mali olusisiseko olungenakuphinda lungeniswe kwiingxoxo, into ekufanele ukuba ixoxwe ngayo yindlela yokwanelisa ubuncinci obufanelekileyo, kuthathelwa ingqalelo iindlela ezikhoyo.

Ibonakalisa konke ukubonakaliswa, onke amanqaku okujonga aphakanyiswayo yincwadi nazo zonke iikhonsepthi ekuthethwa ngazo akunakwenzeka. Kanye nokuphucula amagqabantshintshi kunye neenkcazo ezibonisiweyo kuyo. Ndidinga ukumnika ukufundwa okungu-2 okanye ama-3 ngaphezulu, abonakalise kwaye ahlalise iikhonsepthi ezininzi kunye nemibono kwaye athathele ingqalelo oko akutshoyo. Okwangoku ndiza kukushiya iikowuti ezinomdla ezivela kule ncwadi kunye nolwandiso lwayo oluphambili, umsonto oqhelekileyo oya kusenza sibonise.

Uya kuphinda uthande umbhali ofanayo Iinqobo zokuziphatha zeCosmopolitan.

Incwadi iqala ngokuzikhusela kwiinqobo zokuziphatha njengezixhobo kwimihlaba "engaqhelekanga". Imilinganiselo yokuziphatha njengendlela yokunciphisa iindleko kunye nokubandezeleka. Ngombono kwimbono yam kwaye ngelishwa ungenakufikeleleka, iimeko eziboniswe apha azisayi kusetyenziswa.

… Ingqibelelo kukungaguquguquki phakathi kweengxelo kunye nokusebenza. Uhlobo olunokwabelwana ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo. Imfezeko-uyaqhubeka -yimfuneko kubudlelwane phakathi kwabantu ukuba busebenze, kuba inkohliso iyayonakalisa imiyalezo esiyithumelayo, yenza inkungu kwaye asisazi ukuba sithetha ngantoni. Kungenxa yoko le nto abantu bexabisa ukuthembeka ngokuqinisekileyo, kuba kwenza ubudlelwane phakathi kwabantu bube selubala ngakumbi nangokufanelekileyo. Unxibelelwano-uyasiqinisekisa -lulula kwaye lubiza kancinci kuluntu lwamadoda anyanisekileyo kunakwelinye lamaxoki.

Kwaye unyanisile. Kuyadinisa ukusoloko utolika isiqingatha samagama oluntu, ucinga ukuba oko bakuthethayo kububuxoki kwaye kufuneka bakhe kumhlaba ongaqhelekanga. Kodwa kwenzeka into efanayo kunxibelelwano ngenethiwekhi, obo buxoki, ubugqwetha, ukunyelisa kudala umonakalo ongenakubalwa.

Ubungcali

Uqeqesho kufuneka luthethe ukuzibophelela, namhlanje andikuboni kwalonto, ukungakhathali yinto elawula njengomgaqo ngokubanzi kumacandelo ahlukeneyo nakubugcisa. Abantu abaya emsebenzini kwaye abanamdla, abantu abangakhathaliyo nantoni na engaphaya kokufumana isisombululo okanye ukuzityebisa.

Nabani na ongena kubuchwephesha uzibophelele ekuboneleleni ngokulungileyo kuluntu lwabo, kufuneka alulungiselele ngokufumana izakhono ezifanelekileyo, kwaye kwangaxeshanye angene kuluntu lweengcali ezabelana ngeenjongo ezifanayo.

Ubungcali budibene nemfundo ngumba ophambili, kufuneka abemi baqeqeshwe, hayi nje amagcisa.

Umbuzo awukho ke, ezikolweni nasezidyunivesithi ukuba kuqeqeshwe kuphela amagcisa awodwa anokukhuphisana kwaye ahlangabezane neemfuno zeemarike, nokuba zinjani na, kodwa kukufundisa abemi abalungileyo kunye neengcali ezifanelekileyo, ezaziyo ukusebenzisa ubuchule ukuzalisekisa iinkonzo zoncedo, ezithatha uxanduva lwendlela neziphumo zezenzo zazo ngeenjongo zokufezekisa iinjongo ezingcono.

Ukugqwesa

Sibuyela ekugqweseni. Umxholo oqala ukundikhathaza okoko ndafunda i Manifesto ngokuchasene nokufa komoya kwaye iqala ukuphindeka kuyo yonke into endiyifundileyo. Ukufuna ukugqwesa kubomi bethu. Kulula kum ukuba ndifumane izingqinisiso zokugqwesa ngoku kuba bendijonge kakhulu, okoko ndafunda isincoko kwibourgeoisie. Njengoko ndisitsho ukuba kunokwenzeka, kodwa kuyo yonke indawo ndiyabona ukuba ukunqongophala kokugqwesa nokubaluleka kwako kubonakalisiwe, kodwa andikufumani naphina, nokuba ndiyikhangela kangakanani na, kwiimveliso nakwiinkonzo, kuyilo incwadi evenkileni.

Kodwa njengokuba kuluntu lwaseHomeric kwakubalulekile ukuzibeka ngaphezulu komndilili, imfihlo yempumelelo kuluntu lwentando yesininzi kukukhuphisana nesiqu sakho, ngokungangqinelani, nokuzama ukufumana okona kulungileyo kubuchule bakho yonke imihla, efuna umzamo, eliyinto engenakuphepheka kuyo nayiphi na iprojekthi ebalulekileyo.

Incwadi ichaza ukugqwesa njengoko iqondwa kwiGrisi yakudala kunye nendlela emasiyibone ngayo kwixesha langoku, ukongeza ekuphononongeni imibono eyahlukeneyo yemfundo ngokubhekisele kuqeqesho lwabafundi ngokusekwe kukugqwesa okanye hayi.

Ekugqibeleni, uluntu olunobulungisa alwakhiwanga ngabemi be-mediocre, kwaye ayisiyiyo eyona ndlela ingcono onokuyinikwa ukukhokela ubomi obufanelekileyo. Ukudibanisa "idemokhrasi" kunye "nokuma phakathi" yeyona ndlela yokuqinisekisa ukusilela ngokupheleleyo kwalo naluphi na uluntu oluthi lwentando yesininzi. Kungenxa yoko le nto imfundo ye-aleji yokukhutshelwa ngaphandle ingaphindaphindanga inani labantu abaxakekileyo, kodwa yenza ukuqaqamba.

Kuya kufuneka sizifumanele ixabiso lezinto.

Ulonwabo

Ndiyasithanda isahluko sokugqibela kunye nokuphononongwa okusinika ukonwaba, yintoni kunye nendlela yokuyiphumeza kunye nendlela ulonwabo oluye lwaphela ngayo ukudideka kwimpilo-ntle yethu.

Intatheli enomdla ihlala ibuza ngexesha lodliwanondlebe.

"Ngokudibanisa ubulungisa nolonwabo", impendulo yeyokuba, ngokoluvo lwam, ichanekile xa amagama elinganiswa nalawo anokupapashwa kwiphephandaba.

Siyididile intsingiselo yolonwabo, siyiphatha njengenjongo kwaye ke asiyonwabisi.

… Ngaba isiphelo sobomi bomntu, injongo abantu abafuna ukuyiphumeza kunye nezenzo zabo. Ayisiyo njongo esekupheleni kobomi, ngokungathi sisikhululo sokugqibela sikaloliwe, kodwa leyo ilandelwa kuyo yonke into esiyenzayo, zonke izigqibo esizenzayo, kukhetho ngalunye, ulunika umkhombandlela, a intsingiselo.

Ukukhangela ulonwabo kufuneka kube kwisenzo ngasinye nakwisigqibo ngasinye esenzayo. Kwisahluko sonke ukwabonisa ukubaluleka kwethamsanqa xa kusiziwa kulonwabo. Ukonwaba yimeko, ithoni ebalulekileyo ekufuneka sifikelele kuyo kwaye kufuneka siyonwabele.

Kwaye ngokuchanekileyo ngenxa yokuba ifunwa ngezenzo ezahlukeneyo, ayisiyonto idlulayo, ehlala umzuzwana, nokuba yeyure ezimbalwa okanye iintsuku ezimbalwa. Ukuziva unelisekile kwaye wanelisekile ngexesha elithile kunengqiqo, xa umntu efezekisile oko ebemisele ukukwenza okanye xa efumana iindaba ezimnandi okanye isipho esihle. Kodwa ukonwaba yenye into, inento yokwenza neeprojekthi kunye neenjongo ezivela kwikota, nokuba imfutshane okanye inde, yobomi bomntu. Iiprojekthi kunye neenjongo ezinokuthi ngokungathandabuzekiyo zilungiswe kwaye zitshintshwe ngokwamava, kodwa ezingancitshiswanga ekubeni uzive ulungile, ukuze ube sempilweni.

Ulonwabo luceliwe ngokuqhubekeka, yindlela yokuba, hayi nje indlela yokuba. Uyonwabile, ufuna ukonwaba, awonwabanga, ngelixa usempilweni okanye ugula, ukhathazekile okanye wonwabile. Ulonwabo lunento yokwenza nokusisigxina kwithoni ebalulekileyo.

Nonwabile, anonwabanga. Eli binzana kufuneka libhalwe ngomlilo emabunzini ethu.

Ukujongana nentsingiselo yobomi ngokuzeleyo, kobomi obufanelwe kukuphila, ukonwaba kuchongwa ngegama elithobekileyo, kodwa elinokulawuleka ngakumbi, eliyimpilo-ntle. Ukuba sempilweni kuxhomekeke kumava amnandi, kukuziva ukhululekile kuwe nakwabanye, ngendalo esingqongileyo kunye nekamva elibonakalayo, nangona ngaphezulu kwako konke kunento yokwenza neli xesha langoku. Ngumnikelo esiya kuhlala kuwo ngonaphakade, xa silungile kuwo.

Ukonwaba, ukuqondwa nokuba sempilweni, kuya kubandakanya ukufumana ubuninzi bezinto ezinengqondo, ukonwabela ubomi obumnandi. Kwaye ke xa iqala ukuthandabuza ukuba ulonwabo, luqondwe ngolu hlobo, lunokunika indawo yobulungisa.

Ukuphila kakuhle kudala kunxulunyaniswa nokunokwenzeka kokusebenzisa. Senze imibutho yabathengi. Ukusetyenziswa kwemali yintsingiselo yobomi boluntu.

Kungenxa yoko le nto kwiindawo ezityebileyo kungonelanga, kuba abavelisi benza iminqweno engachazwanga, belawula izizathu zabantu.

Imodeli esiyenzileyo ayinakunyamezeleka, amandla okusetyenziswa kunye nemveliso ziya kuza ngexesha eliya kutshona kwaye sitshabalalisa izixhobo zesityalo sethu.

Ungagxeka nantoni na oyifunayo. Kodwa ukuba ukusetyenziswa kuyinjini yemveliso, kwaye ukuba abemi kufuneka bathathe umthengi ukuba asebenze, izinto azinakulungiswa. Ukonwaba kuncitshisiwe kwimpilo-ntle kwaye ukuba ulungile kuchongwa ngamathuba okusetyenziswa.

Kubaluleke kakhulu

Le ayisiyiyo incwadi kodwa sisiphelo

Ubomi ekuzalisekeni kwabo abuzuziswanga ngokukhuphisana kobona bukhulu, kodwa ngokukhangela izinto ezibonakalayo ezaneleyo ukuze bakwazi ukwenza imisebenzi exabisekileyo ngabo. Ubulumko bubonisa ukuba iprojekthi yobomi obulungileyo kufuneka ibalasele kwiprojekthi yokuqokelela inani elikhulu leempahla. Kwaye ikwabonisa ukuba ubomi obulungileyo bunokugcinwa benempilo elungileyo; ubomi obukrelekrele, okulungele ukuxabisa iimpahla ezingezizo ezomda wokusetyenziswa okungapheliyo, kodwa kwinqanaba lokuzonwabisa okuzolileyo. Phakathi kwazo kukonwabela ubudlelwane babantu, ukwenza umthambo, imidlalo, ukunxibelelana nendalo, umsebenzi onomvuzo, kunye nezinto zenkcubeko, njengokufunda, ukumamela umculo, ukuya kwizifundo, iiklasi kunye neenkomfa. Luhlobo oluthile lwemisebenzi intengiso engayifuniyo imveliso, okanye enayo njengesihlandlo.

Isidingo sokhathalelo, intsebenziswano, isidima, uvelwano, ubulungisa, isidima, inkululeko, ezopolitiko, isimilo, kunye nethamsanqa eliyimfuneko lokonwaba. Ndishiya iikhonsepthi ezininzi ezinxulumene nokuziphatha, ulonwabo kunye nobomi obulungileyo. Kukwakho nentetho endicinga ukuba unomdla kancinci kwinto oyibonileyo kolu hlaziyo, uya kuyithanda incwadi.

Unokucinga ukuba ngayo yonke le nto ndiyithethileyo kwaye ndiyicaphule, akusafuneki ukuba uyifunde le ncwadi, kodwa ndiyakuqinisekisa ukuba ayisiyiyo. Ndiyithathile kwithala leencwadi kodwa ndiza kuyithenga ukuze ndikwazi ukuyifunda kwakhona, ndiyibhale phantsi kwaye ndiyonwabele ngakumbi. Kweminye iya kuba luxwebhu olusisiseko kakhulu lokuziphatha kodwa kwabo bangena kweli hlabathi, inokuba sisiqalo esonwabisayo.

Ukuba ufuna yithenge kwiAmazon kule khonkco

Yifunde, iyakwenza ukuba ucinge ngezinto ezininzi ebekufanele ukuba sizifundisiwe esikolweni okanye ebefanele ukuba zisenze sazicinga ngazo. Ngokuqinisekileyo umhlaba ungangcono kancinci.

Amagqabantshintshi ama-2 ku "Yintoni elungileyo elungileyo yokuziphatha?"

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